How to understand that you are barren? Causes and diagnosis of female infertility

Almost every woman dreams of becoming a mother. However, in some cases, pregnancy does not work for a long time. If numerous attempts to conceive a child fail, the girl begins to worry. How to understand that you are barren? This question is often of interest to the fairer sex.

The main sign of infertility

If a girl of reproductive age, who has regular sexual contacts and does not use contraceptives, is not able to become pregnant for twelve months, experts say that this pathology is highly likely. However, despite this statement, other factors must be taken into account in order to establish a diagnosis. For example, after thirty years, the fairer sex is quite difficult to conceive a child.


This may require a sufficiently long period, even if a woman regularly practices unprotected intimate contacts and does not have health problems. How to understand that you are barren? Are there any clear signs of this condition?

In addition to the absence of pregnancy, this pathology has no pronounced symptoms. And even the inability to conceive is not a basis for establishing a diagnosis. Indeed, there are often situations when it is not a girl who is infertile, but her partner. Therefore, both spouses should contact a specialist for advice on this problem. Do not postpone the visit to the doctor. After all, the earlier the examination will be carried out, the higher the chances of successful therapy and a positive result.

Common causes of infertility in women

How to understand that you are barren? Inability to conceive is not an independent disease. And the only sign of this condition is the absence of pregnancy for twelve months of regular intimate contact without contraception.

negative pregnancy test

However, it should be remembered that infertility in girls is usually observed due to various disorders of the body, in particular, the genital area. It develops due to ailments of an inflammatory nature, genetic abnormalities or congenital defects of the reproductive system. Surgical interventions, hormonal imbalance, psychological overstrain and mechanical damage to the brain can also be factors that trigger the onset of this condition. After the age of thirty-five, all physiological processes in women proceed more slowly. It is much more difficult for them to conceive a child than younger women.

Varieties of pathology

How to understand that you are barren? This issue is relevant for those who for a long time cannot experience the happiness of motherhood, despite numerous attempts to conceive a child. It should be borne in mind that the signs of the pathologies that cause this condition are different and depend on the cause of the disease. Disorders of the body that contribute to the development of infertility are divided into several types:

  1. Infertility of a primary nature. They talk about him if the patient has never had a conception. Typically, the cause of this condition is an imbalance of hormones.
  2. Secondary infertility. This diagnosis is made in the situation when the patient already had at least one pregnancy, regardless of how it ended (interruption, delivery or death of the embryo in the womb). Often such infertility is observed after suffering inflammatory processes or infectious ailments of the reproductive system.
  3. Relative infertility. This condition is associated with the impossibility of conception as a result of dysfunctions that are reversible. After the detection and elimination of pathological processes, the girl’s signs of infertility disappear, and a long-awaited pregnancy occurs.
  4. Absolute infertility. It is due to anomalies that are not amenable to therapy. This, for example, the absence or defects in the formation of tubes, uterus, gonads. Previously, such pathologies made conception impossible. However, today, with the help of assisted reproductive technologies, women who have similar characteristics are given a chance to experience the happiness of motherhood.
  5. Immunological infertility. Such a violation is observed in patients of both sexes. The disorder is expressed in damage to male gametes with special antibodies that are formed as a result of acute infections or chronic diseases transmitted through sexual contact. In case of suspicion of such a pathology, the partners should undergo a comprehensive examination, including analyzes of biological material (seminal fluid, mucous membrane of the cervical canal and vagina).

Other diseases that prevent conception

How to understand that you are barren? Many ailments that interfere with the onset of pregnancy have pronounced symptoms. Their presence is impossible not to notice. Similar pathologies include:

  1. Adhesive processes, accumulation of fluid in the fallopian tubes. Adnexitis is often the cause of such phenomena (ICD code 10 70.0). This disease has an inflammatory nature, proceeds both in acute and in chronic, protracted form.
  2. Pathological processes in the uterus. These include excessive proliferation of organ cells (endometriosis), diseases of the cervical canal, various neoplasms (for example, fibroids).
  3. Oophoritis is an inflammation of one or two sex glands, which is characterized by an acute or chronic course.
reproductive inflammatory disease

To diagnose such disorders, the specialist conducts an x-ray of the fallopian tubes and a laparoscopic examination. Such procedures not only reveal pathologies, but also have a therapeutic effect.

Hormonal imbalance

This violation is observed in disorders of the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal glands or gonads. The substances necessary for the maturation of the eggs are not produced in this case. Therefore, the woman does not have ovulation. One of the signs of infertility in a girl, if it has a hormonal nature, is a stable schedule of basal temperature. It indicates the absence of the necessary conditions for conception. In addition, patients who have similar problems have excessive hair growth (especially in the shins, abdomen, chin), the appearance of acne on the face. In addition, the girl must pay attention to the nature of critical days. Any violation of the menstrual cycle (according to ICD 10 code 94.4 - 94.9) often leads to infertility. You should consult a doctor if the period between bleeding becomes too long, intense, prolonged, or, conversely, scanty and short-term (less than three days) discharge is observed.

Infectious processes

One likely answer to the question of what can be infertility is an STI. Sometimes such pathologies occur without pronounced signs. In such cases, the spouses do not even realize that they are sick. And only the lack of conception for a long time forces them to turn to the doctor.

couple in consultation with a specialist

Infections transmitted through sexual contact adversely affect a woman's body, provoking pathological processes in the reproductive system that lead to adhesions.

Other factors that may interfere with conception

In some cases, infertility occurs as a result of the following reasons:

  1. Body mass deficiency. Lack of weight is typical for patients suffering from eating disorders, girls who have a meager and unbalanced diet. Excessive thinness interferes with the process of maturation of female gametes.
  2. The presence of excess kilograms. Obese patients are not able to have a baby due to hormonal imbalance.
  3. Problems of a psychological nature. This is a strong desire to conceive or fear of pregnancy.
female infertility

Diagnostic measures

To identify the cause of the problem, you must contact a medical institution. What tests pass for infertility? Specialists recommend patients the following types of examinations:

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain.
  2. Evaluation of the state of the organs of the reproductive system using ultrasound.
  3. X-ray of the uterus and fallopian tubes.
  4. Laboratory tests of biomaterial to detect infections and determine hormone levels.
  5. The study of the cervical canal.
  6. Inspection of the gynecologist.
  7. Laparoscopy.
gynecologist examination


After diagnosing female infertility and identifying the causes of infertility, the specialist selects treatment methods. Depending on the factors preventing the onset of conception, the doctor recommends the necessary means to eliminate them.

infertility treatments

Some patients are prescribed drugs to relieve inflammation, others are given antibiotics, and others are given medicines containing hormones. Sometimes the situation is so serious that you have to use assisted reproductive technologies. Such methods as in vitro fertilization, artificial insemination, the use of donor biomaterial or the services of a surrogate mother allow many women to make the dream of having a baby a reality.


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