The latest research by scientists has revealed that today, not only men aged sixty and older, but also twenty- and thirty-year-old men are becoming a serious complication of coronary heart disease - myocardial infarction. In order to restore vital functions after a heart attack, to resume optimal activity and reduce the risk of relapse, each of them needs to conduct a proper recovery of the body, the most important factor of which is a diet after myocardial infarction for men.
Just one exception to the diet of animal fats - a source of cholesterol, which causes vascular plaque growth and atherosclerosis progression - is not enough, although it is very important. What foods can be eaten in the acute period, in the first month after a heart attack, and which ones can be pampered during rehabilitation?
Key Points to a Health Diet
In the first days after suffering a “heart rupture” (as myocardial infarction was mistakenly called in the old days), it is vital to follow the doctor’s recommendations for nutrition. Typically, in the acute period (during the first week), cardiologists advise six or even eight meals a day with wiped dishes (in small portions). This can be liquid cereals or low-fat milk drinks, diet mashed potatoes with a delicate texture or other mashed vegetables, carrot juice, enriched with a couple of tablespoons of olive oil (or any other vegetable). Strongly forbidden during this period salt! The last meal for the patient, according to the advice of doctors, should be organized no later than three hours before bedtime. Scarring after a heart attack, as a rule, occurs in the first two to three weeks, therefore, at the second stage (in the next seven to ten days of the subacute period), the patient's relatives should prepare him freshly ground food six times a day.
It can be steam cutlets, meatballs from low-fat varieties of meat or fish; viscous buckwheat porridge or semolina casserole
(without salt and sugar!), in which you can add a little honey; cauliflower, fresh carrot salad, boiled vegetables or baked potatoes and other unsalted foods. They need to be consumed fractionally, 5-6 times a day. At the third stage (from the beginning of the fourth week) during the scarring period, the diet after myocardial infarction for men includes a low-calorie menu that limits the intake of sodium chloride (food or sodium chloride) and liquids (not more than one liter per day). At this time, doctors advise feeding the patient not only vegetarian soups, but also low-fat meat broth, steam cutlets, lean meat (boiled), stewed or boiled fish fillet, mashed cottage cheese and low-fat unsalted cheese, ripe tomatoes and stewed vegetables (beets and carrots) ; boiled vermicelli, semolina casserole with apples, buckwheat-curd pudding.
Features of diet No. 10: purpose and recommendations
Successful rehabilitation after myocardial infarction depends to a large extent on therapeutic nutrition, excluding heavy foods, which cause flatulence and require large digestive tract resources to digest. In addition, this diet should prevent the risk of new foci of heart disease by strengthening the body, improving blood supply to tissues, reducing excess body weight, reducing the load on the heart and restoring the working capacity of the muscles of the “main motor” of the human body.
The basic principles of the therapeutic diet of such patients are:
- a significant reduction in fat intake (to a minimum), but rejection by cardiologists is not welcome;
- the need to include in the menu a sufficient number of products with plant fibers, but avoiding the consumption of coarse fiber;
- reduction in fatty acids and salt;
- the use of a limited amount of vegetable oils in cooking (excluding the frying process);
- the temperature of ready meals before serving should not be very high and not too low.
Important! The diet after myocardial infarction for men involves the use of only boiled dishes, stewed or steamed. Please note that after suffering a heart attack, you must completely abandon bad habits (smoking and drinking any kind of alcoholic beverages)!
Calorie content and chemical composition of diets in three stages
The first diet menu after a heart attack contains an average of 1200 kcal (not more than 1300 kcal, but also not less than 1100 units). The weight of the diet is approximately 1500-1700 g, includes 50 g of protein, 35-40 g of fat, 150 or 200 g of complex carbohydrates and not more than 0.8 l of liquid (but not less than 0.7 l). Salt is prohibited. Nutrition after myocardial infarction for men provides in the second cycle of the therapeutic diet menu weighing 2000 g, which is calculated at the rate of 1600-1800 kcal. It contains 65-70 g of protein, 55-60 g of fat, 235-250 g of complex carbohydrates and about one liter of liquid (950-1000 ml). With the permission of the doctor, no more than 3 g of salt can be included in the diet by adding grains to food.
The third diet is a set of products weighing about 2300 g with a total calorie content of 2300 kcal. In the daily diet, there are about 90 g of proteins, 65-70 g of healthy fats, 310-320 g of carbohydrates and at least a liter of liquid (up to 1.1 l). In this menu, cardiologists can allow the use of no more than 5 g of salt, but you cannot take sodium chloride without the knowledge of a doctor.
Menu: prohibited foods and dishes
It is known that, unlike women who have had a heart attack, who reduce the number of sweet foods and carbohydrates, the diet after myocardial infarction for men is aimed at eliminating foods that increase blood cholesterol: any kind of sausages, fatty meat and offal (heart, liver) , brain and kidneys), lard, fatty broths, fish caviar, cod liver, fish oil, smoked meats, canned food and marinades, hard salted cheeses, egg yolks, butter, mayonnaise and hot sauces, muffins and sweets, grapes and legumes. In addition, it is necessary to remove coffee, tea and cocoa from the diet (or significantly minimize their strength). The stronger sex is also forbidden to eat chocolate, mushrooms, spinach and sorrel, radish, radishes and fried potatoes (including chips), sweet carbonated drinks and fast food. From the first day after a seizure, salt intake should be avoided. Its ability to significantly increase blood pressure leads to an excessive load on the walls of blood vessels, which entails increased heart function and worsening of the patient. In the post-infarction period, salt can provoke a relapse of the disease.
Menu: Allowed Products
After a heart attack, men can eat foods with moderate cholesterol: sea fish, chicken and turkey meat (especially breast), rabbit and chicken, low-fat dairy products, egg white and vegetable oils.
Of complex carbohydrates, pasta of hard varieties and cereals are most useful. From vegetables, you can choose cabbage and zucchini, beets and tomatoes, baked potatoes. Increasing the number of meals due to snacks, you need to include foods rich in nutrients that strengthen the heart and blood vessels (potassium and magnesium). This list includes avocados and dried apricots, prunes and bananas, raisins, apricots, grapes, melons and watermelons.
Recommended Male Diet After Myocardial Infarction
The daily menu for representatives of the strong half of humanity should include porridge for breakfast (preferably oatmeal or oatmeal). It will help to start the functioning of the digestive system and saturate a person before lunch (second meal).
To people who are overweight, such a breakfast will also speed up the metabolism, which is important in the fight against obesity. Of vegetable oils, men are better off using olive, which helps regulate the ratio of harmful and beneficial cholesterol in the blood due to the high concentration of phytosterones and relieves the body of low density lipoproteins. Natural antioxidants (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) found in salmon, salmon, trout, mackerel, tuna and sardines have a beneficial effect on the work of the heart muscle. However, it must be borne in mind that this fish should not be eaten in salted, fried or canned form. It must be baked, boiled or stewed. A balanced diet after myocardial infarction for men is simply necessary, as it helps to restore health. In their diet should be present berries and fruits rich in polyphenols: aronia, lingonberries, blueberries and cranberries, as well as red grapes, apples and grapefruit. Polyphenols mimic the effects of natural insulin, promote the assimilation of sugars by the heart muscle, reduce pressure and have a healing effect not only on the cardiovascular system, but also on the body as a whole.
Recipes for the first phase of recovery from a heart attack
At the initial stage of rehabilitation after a heart attack, doctors advise to eat only dried bread from flour of the highest (or first) grade. From it you can cut small cubes and send them to the oven, making homemade crackers (without salt). Their permissible amount is not more than 50 g. Soups are cooked on vegetable broths, to which cereals (from permitted) and root crops are added. Of animal fats, egg flakes are allowed in such soups. Curd paste, which cardiologists are allowed to eat in the first days after a heart attack, should be natural, free of sugar and other additives. The product is rubbed to a delicate texture. Only with the permission of the doctor can you add fresh berries, raisins or slices of apples to it. Porridge (oatmeal and buckwheat) is also whipped until smooth.
We prepare an air-steam soufflé from lean meat as follows: cut the poultry breast (100 g) into small pieces and then grind it in a blender, adding a little milk (40 ml) and egg white (1 pc.). Instead of salt, season the dish with your favorite spices and herbs. Pour the homogeneous mixture into a baking dish, greased with olive oil, and cook the souffle in the oven at a temperature of 200 degrees for 20-25 minutes.
Carrot salad is the richest source of vitamin A and antioxidants, it perfectly lowers blood cholesterol. Grate the root crop, adding a little mashed berries with sugar (currants or sea buckthorn), a pinch of chopped walnuts and season with assorted olive oil.
Recipes for the second and third stage
The menu of the second cycle, when rehabilitation after myocardial infarction occurs, includes viscous or liquid cereals (regular oatmeal) in portions of 200 g each, friable (buckwheat) - not more than 100 g, semolina casserole with fruits. Bread should be in the form of crackers or yesterday. Its daily amount is increased to 250 g. We prepare soups from well-boiled vegetables and cereals. Grind carrot and beetroot first courses. Borsch can only be cooked on lean meat using a secondary broth. To prepare it, put on fire water and meat. After boiling, wait 2-3 minutes, drain the liquid and re-add water, then cook until the meat is ready. Steam cutlets and boiled piece of meat in the second and third ration are also allowed. Puddings can be prepared from carrots, cereals, apples and other fruits. Instead of salt, it is better to use tomato or lemon juice, sauces prepared with milk or vegetable broths. In the third stage of recovery after a heart attack, a man can be fed boiled noodles with cottage cheese, cottage cheese and buckwheat pudding, casserole from semolina and apples, various cereals (200 g).
When preparing a hearty dinner, it is optimal to use baked potatoes or any cereals as a side dish, and the main dish will be a boiled piece of meat or fish. The simplest and most affordable recipe: 100 g of any preferred inhabitant of a reservoir (river or sea), 30 g of milk (water), 2-3 grams of wheat flour, egg white and 1 gram of salt. Grind the boiled fish fillet with a blender, add milk and salt, beaten whipped protein. You can attach half the yolk to the mixture. We place the semi-finished product in a mold greased with olive oil, and bake at a temperature of about 200 degrees.
Before serving, you can decorate the finished dish with herbs.
Apple puree "Sissy": home-made diet recipe
The classical composition of fruit puree beloved by many since childhood includes, besides apples, enough high-calorie foods - sugar and condensed milk (or condensed cream). For people with normal body weight, eating a small amount of goodies will not entail weight gain, and for obese patients, such a product is contraindicated. At home, you can prepare both a classic and a dietary version of your favorite dessert. The traditional puree "Sissy" can be obtained from two kilograms of peeled apples and seeds (core) of any apples, one and a half to two tablespoons of sugar, 0.5 cups of water and a half jar of condensed milk or cream.
Slices of apples cook over low heat, gradually adding water as the liquid evaporates. The amount of water and the frequency of its filling are adjusted depending on the juiciness of the fruits and their degree of hardness. The boiled mass can be mashed with a convenient tool (mixer, blender), and then add condensed milk and sugar to taste. It is especially necessary to stir the mass when it is re-set on fire. The total cooking time is approximately 25-40 minutes.
The dietary variant of the treat contains peeled apples, which are brewed from the calculation: for every kilogram of fruit - about a third of a glass of water. We put the well-cooked and crushed mashed potatoes from apple slices on the fire again, without adding sugar and other ingredients. Bring to a boil and pour into sterilized jars. Applesauce can be eaten both with condensed milk and honey. Served to the table in the form of a dessert or a delicious sauce.
In the first 48 hours, doctors are allowed to quench their thirst with a liquid of no more than 50 ml (a quarter cup) at a time. Recommended drinks: alkaline mineral water (without gas), weak tea with the addition of a small amount of honey and lemon, berry and fruit juices, necessarily diluted with water, rosehip broth and liquid jelly, berry juice (cranberries).
Obesity: fasting days
If there are extra pounds, the cardiologist will first advise you to lose weight.
Fasting days will be effective to stabilize it against the background of following a basic diet: apple days (1.5-2 kg of grated or baked apples); 500 g of oatmeal in water and 800 ml of fruit juice diluted with water; 100 g of rice porridge and 1 liter of unsweetened dried fruit compote with lemon juice.
According to the majority of world-famous cardiologists, life after myocardial infarction in men should be closely linked to the Mediterranean diet. It helps to keep the heart in good shape, contains all healthy products, helps to increase the elasticity of blood vessel walls, helps to reduce body weight, normalizes blood cholesterol, and significantly reduces the risk of problems with the cardiovascular system. Be healthy!