Uterine bleeding can begin in women at any age. In the teenage period, as well as in postmenopausal women, any spotting is pathological. When they appear, you must definitely visit a doctor.
If a woman is in reproductive age, then the pathology may differ in functionality: it can be obstetric bleeding and menstruation.
Pathological manifestations are all other discharge of blood from the genitals, the occurrence of which is possible both in the menstrual period and outside it.
Profuse bleeding can open against the background of certain pathologies and conditions of a woman. Not in all cases it is directly related to dangerous diseases, but it must be examined, gynecological consultation is required. Sometimes such a deviation is also accompanied by acute pain, but it can also be painless. Very dangerous are those cases when bleeding begins simultaneously with menstruation, and a woman may, in principle, not notice any deviations and not consult a gynecologist.
Profuse uterine bleeding is one of the types of female pathological conditions. It is able to open at any time and requires constant diagnosis. Of particular danger is the development of this pathology in girls in adolescence and in adult women during menopause.
Some patients do not notice this condition, since it can occur simultaneously with menstruation. It is always necessary to pay attention to the slightest deviations of the cycle and consult a doctor, because untimely detection of pathology can threaten not only health but also life.
Causes of occurrence
Profuse bleeding can appear due to the influence of various reasons. Some of the most common factors are:
- changes in the hormonal nature, when bleeding can occur due to uncontrolled use of hormonal drugs, with diseases of the thyroid gland, due to a sharp drop in estrogen, with hyperplasia;
- in the postpartum period, when the pathology appears simultaneously with the uterine hypotension, in the presence of placental residues, the development of the inflammation process;
- ectopic pregnancy, in which bleeding opens due to rupture of a pipe in the uterus; while symptoms such as malaise, nausea, acute pain with a rupture of the fallopian tube, delayed menstruation are noted;
- termination of pregnancy, when the pathology can be caused by defects in uterine integrity, hormonal failure, the development of the process of inflammation and infection;
- pathology of the uterus of a malignant and benign nature;
- liver disease;
- bleeding defects: if the patient has low coagulation, then the blood does not stop flowing during the menstrual period; a similar condition is characterized by symptoms such as prolonged and heavy periods, bleeding from the nose, bruising in various parts of the body that have an unclear origin;
- stresses that can have a negative effect on the female body; Due to chronic stress, hormonal imbalances occur, always affecting health.
There is also profuse gastric bleeding. About it below.
Hemorrhage from the uterus is a discharge of abundant blood. This condition is especially dangerous in that severe conditions can develop due to severe blood loss. I must say that profuse bleeding is not considered an independent pathology, but refers to the number of symptoms that signal some kind of malfunction in a woman’s health. If you stop it, then this will not help get rid of the real problem, in connection with which a diagnosis should be urgently carried out, after which qualified therapy is necessary.
Often, profuse bleeding begins simultaneously with the menstrual period. In this regard, a woman may not pay attention to pathological abnormalities and believes that menstruation is plentiful due to physiological factors. However, there are such symptoms, when they occur, you should immediately consult a specialist:
- too plentiful or long periods: if a woman is doing fine, then her periods should not last more than seven days, and the total volume of blood lost should not be higher than eighty milliliters;
- spotting spotting of varying intensity not during menstruation;
- the menstrual cycle is unstable;
- spotting or bleeding during menopause;
- spotting of varying strength after intercourse.
If bleeding occurs during menstruation, then there are accompanying symptoms, thanks to which a woman can understand that she has pathological processes in the body:
- apathy and fatigue;
- pale skin;
- frequent headaches;
- low blood pressure of a chronic nature;
- fainting state and frequent pulse;
- sudden loss of consciousness and dizziness.
Based on these signs, chronic blood loss can be judged. During normal menstruation, they do not appear, because the woman’s body easily replenishes blood loss up to eighty milliliters per month. In the presence of such symptoms, you need to look for the cause of your ailment. Of course, you must immediately consult a gynecologist if bleeding begins during pregnancy, after abortion, childbirth, miscarriage.
What is the pathology dangerous?
The most common complication of profuse bleeding is the development of chronic anemia. This deviation is manifested in the reduction of red blood cells and hemoglobin to a critical level. Oxygen starvation of tissues and organs provokes the formation of dangerous pathologies that can lead to death.
If the bleeding is heavy, then the likelihood of a fatal outcome increases. If a woman is forced to change the pad every two hours or more often, then you need to call an ambulance. If this is not done, then she will simply die from severe loss of blood.
In addition, with profuse bleeding of a chronic nature, the risk of infection increases, since damaged places in the uterus become extremely susceptible to infection. In this case, untimely help can also be fatal.
Faced with strange bleeding, every woman should immediately consult a doctor. It is very important to describe all the symptoms that are present. If bleeding is chronic, then it is necessary to find out when the pathological process began.
The main assistants in identifying abnormalities is the menstrual calendar, which every woman needs to keep.
To establish the causes of profuse uterine bleeding, a specialist can prescribe several procedures for diagnosis, including:
- blood test for its coagulability;
- examination on a gynecological chair;
- scraping of the uterine mucosa;
- blood test for hormones.
Profuse bleeding is treated with the help of certain therapeutic measures, which are determined by the nature of the deviation. In some cases, surgical intervention may be prescribed (if there are neoplasms in the uterus). The main treatment methods are:
- hormone therapy;
- increase in blood hemoglobin;
- treatment of uterine neoplasms;
- therapy of endometriosis;
- stimulation of uterine contractions in the postpartum period;
- correction of hormonal contraceptive therapy.
If heavy bleeding begins suddenly, you should immediately call an ambulance. If this is not possible, then immediately deliver the victim to the medical center. Are there any ways to stop bleeding on my own? To do this is quite problematic, since they can provide assistance in stationary conditions. But at home, you can help yourself a bit in the following ways:
- a woman needs to lie down;
- in order to avoid loss of consciousness it is necessary to raise the legs slightly above the head;
- put cold on the lower abdomen;
- if possible, monitor heart rate and pressure;
- to replenish fluid in the body requires a plentiful drink;
- in case of delayed help, it is recommended to drink a tablet of some hemostatic agent - “Dicinon”, “Etamsilat”, “Vikasol” - or tincture of water pepper, nettle, horsetail.
Other types of bleeding
In addition to the uterine, there are also other varieties of it.
1) Profuse pulmonary hemorrhage. Its cause may be a breakthrough of the aortic aneurysm in the main left bronchus.
It poses a serious danger to the patient and can very quickly lead to death. Death occurs as a result of asphyxiation or of subsequent complications such as cardiopulmonary failure, aspiration pneumonia, and progressive tuberculosis. After such bleeding, in some cases, partial replenishment of lost blood may be necessary. This requires freshly frozen plasma and red blood cells.
2) Profuse bleeding from the digestive tract.
Perforation and bleeding are complicating factors of peptic ulcers that can accompany peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum. Such bleeding poses a serious threat not only to the health of the patient, but also to his life. Blood loss can reach three to four liters, and therefore emergency assistance is needed. The following severity levels of profuse gastrointestinal bleeding are distinguished:
- the condition is relatively satisfactory, the patient is conscious, his pressure is normal or slightly reduced, his pulse is slightly increased, as blood clotting begins, the level of red blood cells and hemoglobin is within normal limits;
- a moderate condition, which is characterized by an accelerated heart rate, pallor, low blood pressure, cold sweat, hemoglobin within fifty percent of the norm, blood coagulation decreases;
- a serious condition, accompanied by swelling on the face, lethargy, low blood pressure, rapid pulse and hemoglobin at the level of twenty-five percent of the norm;
- coma, as well as the need for resuscitation.
3) Profuse nosebleeds also threaten the patient's life. There are a number of factors that provoke its development. Most often, nasal profuse bleeding occurs due to:
- Randu-Osler-Weber disease;
- injuries of the cranial base, which are accompanied by defects in the internal carotid artery, and a false aneurysm is formed in the maxillary sinus;
- injuries of the facial skeleton;
- Tumors of the paranasal sinuses, base of the skull, oropharynx and nasopharynx;
- blood pathologies with a violation of its coagulability.
Especially dangerous are nosebleeds, which are caused by the first two reasons, since immediately you can lose blood in the amount of up to two to three liters. With such a pathology, emergency measures are necessary, transporting the patient to a specialized hospital, in which there are doctors working in the field of endovascular neurosurgery.