The diet in babies and adults is very different. For this reason, each diet for children should be individually tailored. It will depend on many factors and include only useful and quality products. In this article we will find out what diets are for children and what are their features.
Diet is a specific diet. As a rule, the diet is selected depending on any problem that needs to be solved. There are a huge number of different diets, but it is for children that this list is separate. This is because a young growing body needs a lot of vitamins and minerals. In general, all diets can be divided into two large categories. The first includes medical (they are also called tables). All of them are numbered (diet No. 1, diet No. 15), and the set of products in them corresponds to certain diseases. For example, diet table number 3 is prescribed for chronic constipation. The diet includes foods that stimulate intestinal motility.
The second category includes rational diets. They are intended not so much for treatment as for maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Any diet for children must be controlled by adults, otherwise it can harm the baby. This is especially true for adolescents. Wanting to look beautiful and attractive, very often they sit on exhausting diets. This can lead to problems with the digestive tract. Before changing the child’s diet, talk with him, tell us why you decided to do so. Also explain the consequences of malnutrition.
In addition, it is very important to support the child if he is prescribed a diet. Perhaps for some time the whole family will have to follow the same diet to support the baby.
Peptic ulcer and gastritis
If the child has symptoms of these diseases, most likely, he will be assigned a dietary table No. 1 or No. 2. They are quite similar and include cereals, low-fat varieties of meat and fish, dairy products. Products that can irritate the walls of the stomach are excluded from the diet. These include spicy, fried, smoked, highly salty foods, as well as carbonated drinks and coffee. It is forbidden to eat acidic foods, especially juices. They can irritate the walls of the stomach and also provoke the development of the disease. It is recommended to eat more boiled vegetables. Such diets for children involve at least 5 meals in small portions. It is best if the dishes are steamed or cooked. These tables are one of the toughest.
Chronic diseases associated with constipation
Diet table number 3 is prescribed for chronic bowel diseases, which manifest themselves in the form of constipation and severe flatulence. The diet itself should include a large amount of fluid, as well as products that activate intestinal motility. As much raw fruits and vegetables as possible, various cereals, low-fat meats and fish should be added to the menu. Sour-milk and dairy products such as cottage cheese, kefir, fermented baked milk are recommended. With diet No. 3, the child is contraindicated:
- butter dough
- fresh bread
- semolina and rice.
In addition, it is recommended to reduce the consumption of chocolate, pasta, canned food and marinades. With this diet, it is recommended to drink as much liquid as possible, it is good if it is not only water and tea, but also dried fruit compotes.
Diet number 4 for children
This diet is for babies with bowel problems. The menu includes as much protein food as possible, while reducing carbohydrate intake. The purpose of the diet is to reduce the processes of decay and fermentation in the digestive tract. So, lactic acid products, raw berries, vegetables, fruits are excluded. The child is shown cereals, flour products, lean meat. Strong teas and coffee are allowed.
Diseases of the liver, pancreas and biliary tract
In children, disturbances in the work of precisely these organs are quite often observed. In this case, they are assigned a diet No. 5. For children, such a diet is useful. Many gastroenterologists argue that even healthy children need to adhere to such a diet. It normalizes the work of the entire digestive tract and is suitable for everyone, without exception. So, a diet involves a minimum of 5-6 meals. Long breaks in food are not allowed. Diet number 5 for children includes all the necessary vitamins and minerals and excludes only harmful and unnecessary products for the child’s body. Allowed:
- Bakery products, but not the first day of baking.
- Soups on vegetable and meat broths. In this case, preference should be given to low-fat veal, turkey, chicken. It is not recommended to use too many seasonings and spices. Meat itself should be eaten without skins and tendons.
- Low-fat varieties of fish in boiled and baked form.
- Dairy and dairy products. At the same time, you need to limit cream, homemade butter, too fatty cheeses.
- All types of cereals, except for millet.
- Boiled, stewed and raw vegetables, except cabbage.
- Fruits such as banana, watermelon, apricot, raw peach, the rest in the form of juices and compotes.
- Many types of sweets, with the exception of those containing chocolate.
It should be excluded:
- dishes with vinegar,
- sausages and nipples,
- cakes, pastries,
- mayonnaise, ketchup,
- spicy and too salty dishes.
The menu for the diet "Table No. 5" for children can be as follows.
- Breakfast: steamed omelet with porridge (oatmeal, buckwheat).
- Second breakfast: baked apple with biscuit cookies.
- Lunch: vegetable broth soup, steam cutlet, mashed potatoes, boiled beet salad, a few slices of yesterday’s bread.
- Snack: dried fruit compote, cottage cheese with yogurt.
- Dinner: porridge with baked low-fat fish.
There are also special hypoallergenic diets. Of course, they mean excluding foods from the diet that can cause a rash. Most often, a child’s allergy diet excludes foods such as chocolate and citrus fruits. They are most often the cause of diathesis. But besides this, there are other products that can cause allergies. Of course, these are all fruits and vegetables of red and orange color, eggs, honey and sugar. For some children, meat can be a strong allergen. This applies to poultry, which is grown in factories. The special feed that animals feed has a strong effect on meat quality. So, recently quite often allergic reactions in children arise precisely after eating white chicken meat. Of course, for children it is preferable to choose a poultry.
A diet for allergies to a child is prescribed only if it is known which product the reaction occurs. Otherwise, by the method of exclusion, it is necessary to determine what exactly causes the rash, and only then prescribe the necessary diet. It should also be noted that in some cases, a rash can occur against a background of gastrointestinal diseases. Then medical diets for children are recommended (table No. 1, 2, 5).
Gastric or intestinal flu
Most often, this disease is also called rotavirus infection. The main symptoms are fever, frustration, and vomiting. However, the diagnosis can only be made by an experienced doctor, since this disease has similar symptoms with other diseases of the HCC. Of course, the diet for rotovirus in children is mandatory. This is necessary in order to reduce the burden on the digestive system and prevent dehydration. In addition, in order to accelerate recovery, it is necessary to exclude the use of products that are an excellent nutrient medium for pathogenic microflora. These include:
- raw vegetables and fruits.
The diet for rotavirus infection in children involves the use of the following products:
- rice and semolina porridge without oil,
- steam omelet and cutlets,
- skim broths and soups.
- strong tea.
Such a diet is prescribed for children for a week (minimum) and can significantly improve the patient's condition. After this, you should gradually introduce other products. With rotavirus infection, nutrition should be very fractional. During this period, the child may completely refuse food, and should not be forced to. However, be sure to drink plenty of fluids.
The diet of obese children
If an adult is overweight primarily associated with an aesthetic problem, then for a child obesity is a disease that can cause tremendous harm to the body. The thing is that still unformed bodies cannot fully function. Against the background of excess weight, a child can develop a wide variety of concomitant diseases, which over time will become chronic. First of all, it is worth noting that unnecessary kilograms disrupt the functioning of the cardiovascular system, shortness of breath, rapid pulse appear. Determine if the child is overweight, using the formula: the child’s weight is divided by the height squared.
For example, a girl weighs 59 kilograms with a height of 1.4 m. Then: 59 / (1.4 * 1.4) = 30.1.
The resulting number is the body mass index, which should normally be 18.5-24.99. If the number is greater than this limit, then the child (or adult) has obesity.
Of course, extra pounds also indicate that the child’s diet does not correspond to his physical activity. Are there enough vitamins, minerals, nutrients in it? The diet of obese children should primarily depend on its physical activity. It should be excluded at least for the first time:
- fast food,
- carbonated drinks,
A diet for obesity should include as much protein and carbohydrates as possible, and fat intake should be reduced. Of course, they cannot be completely ruled out. It is best if they are fats that are found in fish, nuts. For the correction of nutrition in obesity, diet No. 5 is perfect.
It is balanced enough to provide normal nutrition for the child, but at the same time it normalizes the metabolism in the body and will contribute to weight loss.
Of course, it should be noted that persuading a child to diet can be difficult. First of all, it should be explained that malnutrition disrupts the entire gastrointestinal tract. The task of parents is mainly to make the right diet for children. The recipes are very diverse, you do not need to plant a child on bread and water. The menu can be not only useful, but also tasty. Of course, sweets and cakes will have to be abandoned altogether, but this does not mean that desserts are absolutely contraindicated. Just focus on natural products. For example, pumpkin baked with cottage cheese can be a great alternative to any cake. To prepare it you will need:
- cottage cheese,
- protein of one egg.
The main ingredient - pumpkin - must be washed, cut off the skin and make a small depression. Separately mix cottage cheese, vanilla, honey and protein until a homogeneous mass is obtained. In this case, the curd can be wiped through a sieve. Stuff the pumpkin with the resulting mass and place in a baking dish. Bake at a temperature not lower than 170 ° C until soft pumpkin. The most delicious dish is if it is a little warm.
An approximate menu for the week, which will contribute to weight loss in a child, may have the following form:
1. Breakfast should be light and hearty enough. For example, you can choose one of the following options:
- scrambled eggs, bread and stewed fruit;
- buckwheat porridge and fresh vegetable salad;
- oatmeal with milk.
2. The second breakfast is a snack. He should not be too satisfying, because it is necessary that the child has time to get hungry for dinner. It is best if it contains fast carbohydrates:
- an apple and 2 biscuits;
- cheese sandwich and tea.
3. Lunch should be full. Of course, most children have lunch at school, and it is impossible to regulate this meal. But on weekends, lunch can consist of such dishes:
- chicken broth soup, rice cutlets, a few slices of rye bread;
- vegetable stew on lean beef, cinnamon roll;
- fish soup with slices of fish itself, mashed potatoes, rye bread.
- steamed chop sandwich;
- cottage cheese casserole.
5. Dinner should be light. The last meal should take place no later than 7 pm:
- mashed potatoes with meatballs;
- steam cutlets with beetroot salad;
- porridge with baked hake fillet;
How to monitor your baby’s diet
Even if the child does not have digestive problems and excess weight, proper nutrition will not be superfluous for him. In this case, a rational diet can be applied. Menus should be made according to their preferences and physical activity. If a son or daughter is involved in sports, then more protein and carbohydrates should be added to the diet.
Of course, do not force the child to eat something that he does not like. Everyone has their own personal preferences, and the more you insist on the use of a particular product, the more the child will resist. Always offer an alternative. Suppose a child does not like rice. To get started, try making the dish so that it doesn't notice this product there. For example, add rice flour to an omelet. Only after the baby likes the dish can you tell him that there was his most unloved product. Perhaps then his opinion will change. If not, then you should not force.
Rice can be replaced with other, equally useful cereals: buckwheat, bulgur, barley, oatmeal and so on. Almost every product can be an alternative. Also, sometimes it is very difficult to wean children from sweets and carbonated drinks. And this is not their fault. Such is the peculiarity of the taste buds. A person gets used to any taste in 30 days. Therefore, within a month should try to limit the consumption of sweets. You will be surprised, but after 30 days, craving for cakes, puffs, sweets and cookies will decrease noticeably, and the child will begin to show interest in proper nutrition. Or at least he won’t resist him.