Diffuse FCM: possible causes, symptoms, diagnostic tests, treatment, recovery and prevention of the disease

Any disease that affects the female body most often develops due to hormonal failure, the presence of an inflammatory disease or stress. Despite the fact that breast disease often manifests itself after the initial stage has passed, the likelihood of successful treatment is quite high. One of the most common diagnoses is diffuse FCM of the mammary gland (fibrocystic mastopathy). It is important to take timely measures to establish the form and stage of the disease and begin adequate therapy. It is highly undesirable to try to independently diagnose and treat the disease.

Definition of mastopathy

mastopathy how it looks

The term diffuse FCM (fibrocystic mastopathy) is understood to mean a disease that occurs in women. This is the formation in the mammary gland of seals, nodes, cysts, which are filled inside with fluid. This type of mastopathy can have a mixed form, or only be fibrous, mixed, glandular or cystic. As a rule, damage to gland tissue occurs on one or both sides. In medical practice, diffuse fibrocystic mastopathy of the mammary glands in women of reproductive age (up to 40 years) is more common. This is associated with the activity of this body, for example, pregnancy or breastfeeding.

When a woman goes over the menopause, the nodal form of mastopathy is more often noted. It differs in that the node is large enough in size, has single inclusions.

Clinical picture

mastopathy on the one hand

It is noted that the main cause of diffuse PCM is a malfunction of hormones. This is not to say that one of them is guilty. Here we are talking about the whole complex: TSH, androgens, estrogens, hCG (chorionic gonadotropin), progesterone, prolactins, gonadotropins. If a failure occurs in the female body, then it leads to the development of dysplastic processes.

An increase in estrogen levels and a decrease in progesterone become an impetus for proliferative processes in the stroma and epithelium. In a healthy female body, progesterone controls this area and does not allow the development of mastopathy.

In practice, it is customary to distinguish three degrees of severity of diffuse fibrocystic mastopathy of the mammary gland: minor, moderate, sharply expressed. At the beginning, the disease proceeds almost imperceptibly. On palpation, cysts from a few millimeters to several centimeters can be noted. They look like clusters of grapes, which, as they grow, actively begin to produce collagen, the connective tissue is densified, its growth and scarring.

If cavities filled with the glandular component form in the mammary gland, then we are talking about diffuse PCM with a predominance of the glandular component. This pathology is called adenosis. In practice, a mixed form can occur in which both connective and glandular tissue grows.

Causes of occurrence

If we talk about what is the reason for the development of diffuse FCM of the mammary gland, then we should highlight:

  • The period when a woman is in a state of pregnancy. The placenta produces hormones that lead to the development of breast hyperplasia.
  • Inflammatory processes of the uterus and appendages, ovaries (including dysfunction).
  • Diseases of the thyroid gland, which is responsible for the production of luteinizing hormone.
  • Diseases associated with the work of the liver.
  • Hereditary predisposition.
  • The problem with gestation (miscarriage, missed pregnancy, premature birth), abortion, infertility.
  • The onset of the first menstrual bleeding in girls earlier than 12 years.
  • Short or too long period of breastfeeding or refusal.
  • Long period of use of oral contraceptives.
  • Rare sexual life or its absence can lead to stagnation of blood in the pelvic organs.

There is also a negative effect of excess weight, obesity, constant stress, wearing tight underwear (bra). At risk, women who are undergoing radiological treatment, undergo radiation or chemotherapy, have had injuries in the chest area. Frequent visits to the solarium, baths, saunas also adversely affect the health of the mammary gland.

As manifested, the main symptoms

symptoms of mastopathy

If a woman regularly undergoes a medical examination, then there is a likelihood of detecting diffuse breast FCM at an early stage of its occurrence. Since outwardly a woman may not detect the presence of lumps in the chest, at the beginning the disease does not cause discomfort. However, you should beware when the following symptoms appear:

  • Hypersensitivity of the nipples.
  • Soreness on palpation of the mammary gland, a feeling of tightness.
  • Discharge from the nipples in white or brown.
  • Painful sensations that pass from the chest to the armpit.
  • In the period before the onset of menstrual bleeding, a woman notes a swelling or engorgement of the breast.

An extremely disturbing symptom is any discharge from the chest. When they appear, you should not expect a queue for an appointment with a gynecologist, you should immediately undergo a breast examination with a mammologist. It happens that swelling in the mammary gland is accompanied by fever, dizziness, nausea, fainting, or headache. At the time of going to the doctor, it is worth mentioning this, as this may indicate a complication of the course of mastopathy.

Diagnosis of the disease

mammography for mastopathy

At home, a woman can conduct a visual examination to identify signs of diffuse FCM of the mammary glands. If in European countries this procedure is familiar and quite natural, in Russia, few people practice breast examination for signs of lumps. This leads to the fact that a woman learns about the presence of an ailment already when he moved to the second or third stage.

Diagnosis of echoes of diffuse FCM in a medical institution takes place in several stages with different specialists: a mammologist, gynecologist and endocrinologist. You can get a visual image of the current state of the mammary gland on ultrasound and during mammography. They allow you to detect the presence and location of cysts, their number and structure, condition of the milk ducts, damage to the nipple. Of great importance is the age of the patient, therefore, during the study, the specialist compares this parameter with the state of the mammary gland at the time of treatment. For example, the thickness of the glandular layer depends on how old the woman is: the older, the thinner and tissue density. The maximum value is reached when the patient is over 55 years old.

Recently, it has become popular to perform magnetic resonance imaging. However, a reservation must be made that with this study it is impossible to detect small formations, the size of which is several millimeters.

If diffuse PCM is diagnosed, and its dimensions require analysis of the biomaterial, then a biopsy is prescribed. This allows you to determine the tendency to develop cancer or its stage.

In addition to studies that are directly related to the study of the current state of the mammary gland, tests for the presence of infections, determination of the level of thyroid hormones (TSH and LH), and tumor markers are also prescribed.

How to inspect a home

how to determine mastopathy

It is not necessary to consult a doctor every time to have a breast diagnosis. Any woman in a comfortable home environment can examine the breast for changes in it. In order for the self-diagnosis procedure to be effective, it is important to observe a number of rules:

  • Inspection must be carried out while standing by the mirror, hands down, bare torso. The symmetry of the mammary glands, the correct form, contours are evaluated.
  • When bending to the side, you can notice elevations or depressions on the surface of the chest, discharge at the time of movement.
  • The surface of the skin should be clean, without microscopic ulcers, rashes, the skin tone is uniform.
  • Being in a standing position, and then lying down, it is necessary to palpate each breast. Visually dividing it into four parts, with careful movements, check for every seal on the chest for tightness and unnatural formations.

To obtain reliable results, the examination is recommended on the same day of the menstrual cycle. It is advisable to choose the second or third day after the end of menstrual bleeding. This is important because the body undergoes changes in different phases of the month. The condition of the mammary gland also changes.

Treatment methods

drugs for mastopathy

If diffuse fibrocystic mastopathy (FCM) is diagnosed, mild or moderate, then the doctor may prescribe the following treatment regimen:

  • External treatment with creams.
  • The use of non-hormonal drugs.
  • Vitamin complexes and herbal medicine.

In order to reduce the level of prolactin in the blood, the drug "Mastodinon" can be prescribed, it prevents the proliferation of diffuse FCM. As an immunostimulating drug, Phytolon is often prescribed. With a tendency to develop an oncological tumor, it is possible to regulate the level of metabolic enzymes using Mastofit. "Klamin" allows you to normalize the thyroid gland.

The anti-inflammatory effect can be achieved by applying the Mastrorel gel. It also has a calming and analgesic effect. Gel "Progestogel", which inhibits the activity of the epithelium, reduces the tendency to form edema in the connective tissues, has proven itself as a hormone therapy.

Normalization of the hormonal background is impossible without taking a vitamin complex, which includes iodine, vitamins of groups A, C and E. The purpose of drugs, which include hormones, is possible only after consulting a doctor. As a rule, this group includes oral contraceptives containing gestagen or progestogens. Often prescribed drugs with progesterone, such as Utrozhestan or Dufaston. The duration of treatment can be up to six months, but it is very effective.

What can be the complications

ultrasound mastopathy

If the disease is ignored and untreated, the likelihood that diffuse PCM with a predominance of the glandular or cystic component will resolve by itself is very small. Therefore, you should be aware of the risk of developing such complications:

  • Her degeneration into a malignant formation.
  • The development of the inflammatory process and infection of nearby tissues.
  • Rupture of a cyst.
  • Enlarged cysts to sizes that will be outwardly visible and cause discomfort.

In some cases, if the physical condition of the woman allows and she has the desire and ability to become pregnant, the recommendation to prevent the development of complications may be related to the proposal to give birth to a child. Thus, some women start the mechanism of renewal and stimulation of natural processes in their body, and mastopathy recedes and no longer occurs.

Preventive measures

prevention of mastopathy lactation

Regular examination of the condition of the mammary glands at home and by a specialist, breastfeeding can be a good preventive measure to prevent the development and detection of diffuse FCM in oneself. It is worth monitoring the psychoemotional state, avoiding injuries in the area of ​​the mammary glands, avoiding abortions and leading a healthy lifestyle. These simple rules can protect a woman from the risk of developing mastopathy. However, do not forget that the disease is easier to prevent than to treat.

Women who monitor their weight should remember that dramatic weight loss is also detrimental to the hormonal state. The same applies to fast sets of body mass. If you monitor the weight, then you should not allow sudden jumps in any direction.

The consequences of the disease

If a woman has already been diagnosed with previously diffuse PCM with a predominance of the fibrous component or its mixed form, then the likelihood of cancer appears to increase several times. Moreover, since the development of the disease is often associated with problems in the functioning of the hormonal system, one should not exclude the risk of oncology of the ovaries and cervix. Therefore, a timely examination can help to avoid the development of concomitant diseases and damage to neighboring organs.

In the case when a woman has an established diagnosis in the form of mastopathy, which has no prerequisites for growth, it is important to conduct a regular examination of the breast. This is extremely necessary in cases where there is a sharp change in the hormonal background or in the event of a stressful situation. Particular attention is required in the presence of chronic diseases of the female reproductive system and with prolonged use of hormonal contraceptives.

Source: https://habr.com/ru/post/22318566125818284/

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