Type 2 diabetes diet: sample menu, allowed and forbidden foods

Worldwide, more than 400 million people are ill with diabetes. With this pathology, the production of insulin by the pancreas or its absorption by the cells is disrupted. Because of this, the glucose level in the blood rises significantly, which leads to serious consequences for human health. The most common type 2 diabetes is now, in which insulin is produced in normal amounts, but is not perceived by the cells, so glucose is still not processed, but remains in the blood. The main reason for this condition is obesity and unhealthy diet with lots of carbohydrates. Therefore, the diet for type 2 diabetes is the main treatment method. In the initial stages of the disease, only with its help without the use of drugs can the amount of glucose be normalized.

Features of the disease

One of the main functions of the pancreas is the production of insulin and glucagon. These hormones are necessary for the normal course of carbohydrate metabolism and the absorption of glucose by cells. With insufficient amounts, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus develops, which is treated only with insulin injections. But it often happens that this hormone is produced in normal amounts, but the level of glucose in the blood is still high. This happens when cells are insensitive to it. At the same time, they talk about the development of type 2 diabetes. At the same time, diet and treatment are inextricably linked, since the cause of cell resistance to insulin is most often a violation of carbohydrate metabolism due to malnutrition.

Therefore, this type of diabetes is most often found in middle-aged or elderly people suffering from obesity, metabolic disorders, and atherosclerosis. A hereditary predisposition also plays a leading role in its development. According to statistics, every 10 people over 50 years old have type 2 diabetes. Diet and treatment at the same time, prescribed by a specialist, will help keep glucose levels normal and lead a normal life. But if you do not pay attention to it and do not follow the doctor’s recommendations, various complications will develop.

diet tasks

Diet tasks

Most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are overweight, their metabolic processes are slowed down. Often it is because of this that insulin resistance is impaired and glucose is not absorbed by the tissues. Therefore, its increased level in the blood is observed. Violation of metabolic processes also leads to the fact that it is very difficult to lose weight for such patients. But this is necessary in order to improve the sensitivity of tissues to insulin. For this, a diet for type 2 diabetes is needed.

At the initial stage of treatment, nutrition should contribute to weight loss. To do this, low-fat foods are used and the amount of fast carbohydrates is greatly reduced. The most common diet number 9 in this case obeys these requirements. Type 2 diabetes mellitus can be compensated at the initial stage without drugs. Proper nutrition will help prevent fluctuations in sugar levels. But for this, it is so necessary to eat constantly, without violating the basic rules of the diet. No medicine can help keep your sugar levels normal without proper nutrition.

The objectives of the diet for type 2 diabetes should be:

  • weight loss;
  • reduced body fat;
  • lower cholesterol;
  • maintaining normal blood pressure;
  • prevention of complications of the disease;
  • maintaining normal glucose levels;
  • general condition improvement.
diet features

Nutrition principles

To keep glucose levels under control and prevent weight gain, patients must follow certain rules:

  • First of all, always follow all the recommendations of the attending physician, who selects diet food in accordance with individual characteristics;
  • the diet must be observed constantly, without exemptions;
  • eat preferably in small portions, but more often, hunger should not be allowed;
  • try to eat as little fat as possible, which impair the absorption of carbohydrates;
  • when choosing products for daily use, it is necessary to take into account their glycemic index;
  • prohibited foods should be completely excluded from the diet;
  • when drawing up the menu, it is necessary to choose different products so that the nutrition is balanced and varied;
  • try as much as possible to drink clean water, at least 1.5 liters.

A diet for patients with type 2 diabetes involves special cooking methods. Cooking, steaming, stewing or baking is permissible. Frying foods is not recommended, especially in large quantities of oil. This method of preparation greatly loads the pancreas and further violates its functions. It is sometimes acceptable to cook dishes on the grill or in dishes with non-stick coating, adding a minimum amount of oil. In addition, when preparing food, it is undesirable to add store sauces, mayonnaise or spices. It is necessary to use salt as little as possible. Greens, garlic, pepper, lemon juice are acceptable for improving the taste.

how to control sugar level

Features of diet

Several diet options for diabetics have now been developed. But they all have the same principles and are not much different. The problem is that simply eliminating prohibited and harmful products from the diet is not enough. Food needs to be varied, tasty and nutritious.

The most common diet is type 2 diabetes. Number 9 is its basic principle - dividing all products into three groups: prohibited, permitted, and restricted. The goal of such a diet is to normalize carbohydrate and fat metabolism. In addition, this diet is low in calories. When compiling a daily menu, you need to include different allowed products. Food should consist mainly of cereals and vegetable soups. Casseroles and salads are useful, to which you can add a spoonful of vegetable oil.

In addition, other low-carb diets for type 2 diabetes are also known. For example, the Mayo Clinic's diet involves regular consumption of a special fat-burning soup. It is cooked from onions, tomatoes, cabbage, bell peppers and celery. Season it with hot pepper, due to which its use will contribute to the burning of fats. You can eat this soup in unlimited quantities, in addition, fruits are allowed.

allowed and forbidden products

Allowed Products

Any type 2 diabetes diet includes many foods that you can eat without restriction. Although this does not mean that you need to overeat. It’s just that these products do not increase glucose levels, but contain useful trace elements. Allowed foods are quite diverse, so it's easy to create a diet menu for type 2 diabetes. Eating with this disease can also be delicious, which is very important for the patient. What is allowed to eat with diabetes:

  • rye or wheat bread from whole grain flour;
  • lean meat;
  • low-fat fish and seafood;
  • mushroom soup;
  • cereals - buckwheat, oat, wheat, barley;
  • skim milk products;
  • vegetables;
  • unsweetened berries and fruits;
  • green tea, juices and stewed fruits without sugar.

Sometimes with good diabetes compensation it is allowed to eat butter, cottage cheese, cheese, white rice, salted fish, fatty meat. But the use of these products should be strictly limited.

what not to eat

Prohibited Products

Diet 9a for type 2 diabetes suggests certain limitations. There are several foods that are strictly prohibited. After all, they help increase blood glucose levels. Moreover, it is impossible to deviate from this rule even with an improvement in the condition and normal sugar rate. What are these products:

  • sugar, sweets, chocolate, jam;
  • ice cream, condensed milk;
  • sweet fruits - bananas, watermelons, figs, dried fruits;
  • coffee, carbonated and alcoholic drinks;
  • fatty dishes;
  • pork, lamb;
  • smoked meats, sausages;
  • semi-finished products;
  • fast food;
  • pickled foods;
  • lard, margarine;
  • ready-made sauces and mayonnaise;
  • rich bakery products, cakes, cookies.
diet choice

How to make a menu

Diet for type 2 diabetes involves a varied and balanced diet with limited fat and fast carbohydrates. This food does not contribute to weight gain and increase sugar levels. Most of the diet should consist of vegetables, lean meat or fish, low-fat dairy products. In moderation, cereals, legumes, whole grain bread, pasta, and fruits can be consumed.

An exemplary diet for type 2 diabetes should contain the following dishes in the menu:

  • vegetable or mushroom soups;
  • casserole of vegetables or cottage cheese;
  • salads of tomatoes, cabbage, cucumbers and greens without oil;
  • vegetable stew;
  • boiled lean meat or fish, steam cutlets;
  • buckwheat or oatmeal;
  • stew from vegetables and meat;
  • rice pilaf;
  • cheesecakes;
  • lentil puree;
  • unsweetened tea, compote or broth of wild rose.

The whole diet for the day should be divided into 6 meals: first and second breakfast, lunch, then afternoon snack, dinner, and 2 hours before bedtime, it is recommended to drink kefir.

dietary guidelines for diabetes

Sample menu

In order to make it easier for patients to make a diet, a system of bread units - XE - was developed. It helps to evaluate products not by calorie content, but by carbohydrate content. One XE contains 12 g of carbohydrates. Diabetics need to consume from 8 to 14 XE per day. To calculate them you need to use a calculator. For example, 1XE is contained in a tablespoon of flour, 2 tablespoons of boiled cereals, 1 beetroot, 3 carrots, a glass of skim milk.

You can independently calculate the number of necessary products per day, because there are many tables indicating XE and glycemic index. But you can use the ready-made menu for a diet for type 2 diabetes for several days. When compiling it, not only the need for a low amount of carbohydrates and fats is taken into account, but also the intake of necessary trace elements.

  • There are several options for breakfast. It should be light, but satisfying, so that quickly there is no feeling of hunger. This can be oat, buckwheat or rice porridge, with them carrot, cabbage salad or stewed beets. As an option - low-fat cottage cheese. Additionally, a slice of whole grain bread, possibly low-fat cheese. Unsweetened tea is chosen for drinking.
  • Fruits such as grapefruit or an apple are useful for lunch. You can also eat low-fat yogurt or drink unsweetened dried fruit compote.
  • For lunch, a combination of several dishes is assumed. First of all, this is soup. It can be vegetable, bean, mushroom or fish. Vegetable borsch is useful, sometimes low-fat chicken broth can be allowed. In addition, lunch includes stewed vegetables with boiled meat, vegetable stew, pilaf with chicken. Additionally, you need to eat a salad or zucchini caviar, a piece of bread is allowed. You can drink it with cranberry juice or dried fruit compote.
  • For an afternoon snack, you can choose cheesecakes with compote or fruit salad. Sometimes with more hearty meals at lunch for lunch, only an apple or an orange is allowed.
  • Dinner may consist of stewed vegetables, steamed meatballs, meat and cabbage patties or baked fish. You can also include porridge and vegetable salad in it. Sometimes it is permissible to eat a boiled egg or cottage cheese casserole. Drink unsweetened tea, rosehip broth or compote.
  • 2 hours before bedtime, nonfat kefir, fermented baked milk or warm milk are recommended.


The distribution of proteins, fats and carbohydrates during the preparation of a diet for type 2 diabetes is determined individually by a specialist. It depends on the age and weight of the patient, the characteristics of diabetes and the presence of other diseases. But meat is necessarily included in the diet. It contains essential amino acids, provides the body with protein. The main thing is to choose it correctly. A protein diet for type 2 diabetes is often recommended, but there are certain limitations in choosing foods:

  • meat must be fresh;
  • you need to choose only its dietary types - veal, rabbit, turkey, chicken;
  • you can not eat meat with veins, films, skin, as these substances slow down digestion;
  • It is forbidden to eat fatty meat - pork, goose, duck, lamb;
  • exclude fat, ham, smoked meats, sausages from the diet;
  • broths can be cooked only from lean meat without skin and bones.


The diet for type 2 diabetes necessarily includes fish. It provides the intake of not only essential amino acids, but also fatty acids. In diabetes, you need to eat lean fish, it is better to bake or cook for a couple. The allowed fish for such patients is hake, cod, pollock. Periodically, you need to include red fish in the diet. In order for such dishes to be tasty, fish, it is better to steam or bake in your own juice in the sleeve. You need to add a minimum amount of salt and fat.

It is forbidden to eat oily fish - catfish, herring or mackerel. Such products heavily load the pancreas. Salted or smoked fish is also contraindicated. It can cause the appearance of edema, increased pressure and malfunction of the pancreas.

vegetables for diabetes


This is the most useful part of the diet for type 2 diabetes patients. Diet recommends eating vegetables every day. They are a source of essential vitamins, minerals, fiber and at the same time contain a minimum of sugar. Such nutrition allows you to increase immunity, improve digestion and make up for the lack of necessary trace elements. It is advisable to eat vegetables raw, but this is not always possible, for example, in the presence of inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it is better to stew or bake them with a small amount of oil. In addition, it is advisable to refuse the use of potatoes, as it contains a lot of starch.

Many patients are interested in what can be eaten with type 2 diabetes from vegetables? Preference should be given to products of green or red color, and it is better to those that have grown above the ground, rather than root crops. You can eat such vegetables:

  • cauliflower;
  • beet;
  • pumpkin;
  • zucchini;
  • eggplant;
  • broccoli;
  • Tomatoes
  • Jerusalem artichoke;
  • onion;
  • radish.


Some patients believe that a low-carb diet for type 2 diabetes involves the exclusion of almost all fruits. But more often than not, this is not necessary. Many fruits do not raise sugar, therefore, are allowed with this disease. But they provide the body with many useful substances. But since fruits are a source of carbohydrates, it is recommended to eat them in the morning. It is also better not to use them on an empty stomach, as this gives a large load on the pancreas. The forbidden fruits for diabetes are watermelons, melons, figs, dates and other dried fruits, as they contain a lot of sugar. Peaches and bananas are also not recommended.

And what can you eat with type 2 diabetes from fruits? It is better to give preference to apples, pears, plums and citrus fruits. But apricots, pomegranates, and kiwis are also allowed. You can eat berries, especially black currants, cherries, raspberries, cranberries. Very useful is blueberries and blueberries, which contribute to lowering blood sugar. Eating your favorite fruits makes it easier to overcome cravings for sweets and follow a diet.

Other products

A strict diet for type 2 diabetes is needed only in the most severe cases, for example, with severe obesity. In other cases, the nutrition of the patient should be tasty and varied. To provide the body with energy, carbohydrates are needed in the diet. Therefore, the term “low-carb diet” for type 2 diabetes implies that fast carbohydrates and sugars are replaced by slow ones that do not increase sugar. Therefore, you must definitely eat porridge. Buckwheat, wheat, millet, peas, unpolished rice and oats (but not cereal) are especially useful. Hard pasta is allowed. It is advisable to eat them in the morning, and cook without oil and sugar. It is forbidden to use white rice, semolina and oatmeal for diabetes. Especially harmful are instant cereals, which contain many calories.

Type 2 Diabetes Diet Recipes

To nutrition with this disease was not only useful, but also tasty, you need to know the secrets of cooking diet foods. It is best to bake, stew or steam. Even with a large number of prohibited foods, food can be varied. There are different diet recipes for type 2 diabetes.

  • It is useful to stew green peas with green beans in a small amount of butter. For taste, garlic, onions, herbs, tomato sauce and lemon juice are added.
  • To cook bean soup, you need to add onion, some potatoes, green beans to the vegetable broth. Season with herbs.
  • For a full and hearty meal for lunch or dinner, you can stew vegetables. You need to put chopped cabbage, zucchini, bell pepper, tomatoes, eggplant, onions into a deep pan. Stew everything with a little water in the oven.
  • Salad with squid is not only hearty, seafood is very useful for patients with diabetes. You need to mix chopped boiled squid meat, egg, onion, apple. Dress with low-fat yogurt.

If you follow all the doctor’s recommendations, do not eat prohibited foods and follow the principles of diet, you can normalize your sugar level. When following a diet, diabetes will not progress and complications will not appear.

Source: https://habr.com/ru/post/34393008305407835/

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