Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the endocrine system, which results in an increase in blood sugar. This is due to the fact that insulin levels are reduced (more complex forms of diabetes are observed when it is completely absent). If you do not treat the disease in a timely manner, this can lead to the failure of various systems in the body, as well as lead to metabolic disorders.
Types of diabetes
Diabetes mellitus can be divided into three main types:
- The first type of diabetes. This is the most complex form of the disease in which the pancreas produces too little insulin, or does not produce it at all. Typically, such a diagnosis is made to people under the age of 20. The exact causes of this disease are not yet known. Some are inclined to believe that it appears due to a genetic predisposition. The pancreas ceases to function, so it produces too few hormones. Others believe that diabetes appears due to a viral disease that completely affects the pancreas.
- The second type of diabetes is the most common form of the disease these days. Appears at a fairly mature age in people who are overweight. This type of disease manifests itself in approximately 90% of all cases of the disease. Its difference from type 1 diabetes is that the pancreas produces enough insulin, but the body does not use it correctly.
- Gestational diabetes. This phenomenon is observed in about 4% of women on the planet during the second trimester of pregnancy. Its difference from the previous forms can be called the fact that it disappears after the birth of a child.
Causes of the disease
Type 1 diabetes mellitus develops due to an autoimmune process, which appeared due to malfunctions of the immune system. This leads to the production of antibodies in the body that affect pancreatic cells, destroying it. Typically, type 1 diabetes occurs due to infection (rubella, hepatitis, smallpox, and the like). In particular, the disease progresses rapidly if the patient is predisposed to this disease.
The risk of progression of type 2 diabetes is in people who regularly take dietary supplements, which include selenium. In addition, obesity and heredity are the main factors that result in type 2 diabetes.
Consequence of the disease
Regardless of the reasons that triggered the onset of diabetes, the result is the following: the human body cannot fully absorb glucose. Sugar is the main source of human energy, because its excess is stored in the liver and muscles, and then can be used in critical situations. With diabetes, glucose is not absorbed, but enters the bloodstream and circulates with it throughout the body. As a result, muscle tissue and organs are destroyed. Therefore, fats act as energy in diabetics. When they are split, toxic substances are formed in the body that adversely affect the brain, as well as metabolism.
Any form of diabetes cannot be completely cured. The patient's condition can be somewhat improved by the implementation of special measures.
- Injections of insulin every day (for patients with type 1 diabetes). The substance is sold in special syringes, making injections very easy. Using special strips, it is necessary to control the glucose content in urine and blood.
- The use of pills that help lower the sugar level in the body. In this way, people with type 2 diabetes use it. If the disease progresses, the attending physician should prescribe insulin injections.
- Special exercises that patients should do. In addition, if there is excess weight, it is necessary to get rid of it for medicinal purposes.
- A special diet that excludes the use of sugar, alcohol, sweet fruits. Delicious dishes for diabetics should be prepared according to all requirements. It is advisable to eat 4-5 times a day and in small portions. You can eat foods that contain sweeteners.
How to eat a diabetic?
As mentioned above, dishes for the diabetic should contain a minimum of sugar. It is important that they are quite nutritious. After all, sugar is the main source of energy for the body for the whole day. And if it does not come with food, then the body can noticeably weaken. Patients should carefully begin the selection of products. In any case, when preparing a dish for a diabetic, it is necessary to make it as dietary as possible. When composing the menu, several important factors should be taken into account: the type of disease (first or second), age, weight, presence or absence of physical activity.
Nutrition for Type 1 Diabetics
If a person has a disease - type 1 diabetes, then he needs to give up foods high in carbohydrates. Only sometimes you can consume carbohydrates, which are quickly absorbed by the body. This mainly concerns children, because it is difficult for them to completely abandon such products. However, parents should clearly monitor when and how much the child ate carbohydrate-rich foods. It is even advisable to keep a record in order to control blood sugar, as well as insulin in a timely manner.
Dishes for type 1 diabetics include foods such as:
- steamed meat without salt;
- boiled fish without salt;
- black bread;
- boiled eggs;
- fruits: citrus fruits and currants;
- dairy products (cottage cheese, sour cream with low fat content and cheeses);
- vegetable salads;
- rosehip tea.
In this case, the patient should completely abandon the use of coffee, alcohol, fried foods, flour products.
What is included in the diet of type 2 diabetics?
Dishes for type 2 diabetics must be prepared taking into account all the requirements: they must be non-greasy, free of sugar and salt. It is desirable that the food was varied, but at the same time dietary.
Eating dishes for type 2 diabetics should be without bread. If this requirement cannot be met, then one piece of grain bread can be eaten with food. It is absorbed faster than flour, but it does not practically affect the level of sugar in the patient’s body. You should not eat more than 200 g of potatoes, 50 g of carrots and cabbage per day.
Dishes for type 2 diabetic consist of this set of products:
- buckwheat, wheat, oatmeal or pearl barley porridge;
- fruit or vegetable salad (choose not too sweet fruits);
- lean borsch;
- stewed fruits and jelly without sugar;
- dairy products casseroles;
- fermented baked milk.
Jerusalem artichoke for diabetics
Jerusalem artichoke is a so-called earthen pear. Doctors say this vegetable is good for any type of diabetes. It contains amino acids essential for the body, so after consuming such a plant a person receives a large charge of energy for the whole day. Dishes from Jerusalem artichoke for diabetics will fulfill a lot of useful properties. If you use Jerusalem artichoke daily, then the blood sugar level will decrease significantly, and the pancreas will normalize. Nutritionists advise diabetics to replace potato with Jerusalem artichoke. From the vegetable you can cook anything: soups, cereals, stews. It would only be a desire.
If you are overweight?
Recipes for overweight diabetics of type 2 should be light, with a minimum carbohydrate content. In addition, patients should consolidate their results by performing physical exercises. The complex does not need to be chosen independently: it must be developed in conjunction with the attending physician, taking into account the peculiarities of the course of the disease.
You can also seek help from a nutritionist who can tell you which recipes for overweight type 2 diabetics you can eat. One of the most common foods among diabetics is String Beans with Onions. To prepare it you will need:
- beans - about 400 g;
- lemon juice;
- garlic - 1 clove;
- greens to taste.
Below is how a dish for diabetics is prepared (with a photo that is under the recipe).
- Melt butter in a pan, add finely chopped onion and flour.
- Dilute the tomato with water and add lemon juice with herbs, garlic.
- The resulting mixture should be poured into the pan.
- Boil the beans separately until tender, then pour them into a pan and simmer a little.
Tasty and healthy food
If the dishes for the diabetic are dietary, this does not mean that they are tasteless. On the contrary, food can be prepared in such a way that it could treat healthy people, but at the same time they would not see a significant difference. In this case, it is not even necessary to have cooking skills. It is enough to just use the recommendations and recipes that are listed below.
Delicious dishes for diabetics should be well cooked so that they do not preserve harmful bacteria that can have a detrimental effect on the pancreas. Also useful are products that have virtually no taste of their own (zucchini or buckwheat).
The second courses for diabetics from zucchini are quite tasty and satisfying. To cook zucchini stew, you need to take zucchini, cauliflower, a little butter, onions, sour cream and tomato. In a frying pan in butter, pass the onions, then add the chopped cauliflower. Add sour cream and tomato sauce, stew a little. At the end, add zucchini, diced, and simmer for about 10 minutes.