Energy: where to get it?


Let's talk a little about energy. I assure you that it will be interesting - especially if you want to understand where all the blessings of our civilization come from.

So, let's begin:

RADIATION OF THE SUN - the main source of energy on Earth. Its power is characterized by the solar constant - the amount of energy passing through the site of a unit area perpendicular to the sun's rays. At a distance of one astronomical unit (that is, on the Earth’s orbit), this constant is approximately 1.37 kW / m². Passing through the atmosphere of the Earth, solar radiation loses approximately 370 W / m² in energy, and only 1000 W / m² reaches the earth's surface. This is still a huge amount of energy!

But let's not talk about the equator, let's see what happens in Moscow.

● So, the average solar energy for Moscow (insolation) per year is 297 MJ per square meter. The maximum in June is 615, the minimum in December is 31 (20 times less!)

● Average square wind speed - 2.5 m / s (weather data)

● The mean square velocity of the waters of rivers - 1 m / s (data on hydro resources)

Now, using well-known formulas, we translate these values ​​into electricity.

where - average energy source (sun, water, wind), - Efficiency of the installation (solar panel, averaged wind turbine and dam-free hydroelectric station, respectively).

Then we get:

● SUN - 44.55 MJ / m. sq. / year (direct conversion efficiency 15% *)
● WIND - 0.07 MJ / m sq. / year (conversion efficiency about 35% *)
● WATER - 2.65 MJ / sq.m. / year (conversion efficiency about 40% *)
* These efficiency data were taken from different sources according to the characteristics of the equipment represented on the market.

Values ​​seem quite worthy, but, nevertheless, difficult to evaluate. Let's try differently.

The average electricity consumption per adult to provide him with food, work, housing, comfort and everything that is included in it is approximately 1940 kWh of electricity per year (data from statistics on global energy consumption). It is not difficult to calculate that in order for us to live well, we will need:

● 13.9 square meters SOLAR PANELS (efficiency - 15%, 2kW - 160000r only on the panel), but if we remember that insolation is much less in winter, then in Moscow we will need 26.6 sq.m. solar panels. And we must not forget about the problem of the accumulation of energy, which is also very acute.

● If we talk about WATER, then this value will be similar to 2800 sq. M. cross sections of rivers (without dams)

● I don’t want to talk about WIND and wind - 11.29 hectares of wind turbines!

This calculation is approximate, of course there are slightly more effective solutions and a little less, but the average struggle of manufacturers of installations goes for percent efficiency.

It is not difficult to imagine how difficult it is to switch to using only alternative energy sources in central Russia. Looking at these numbers you start to think, but is alternative energy needed at all?

Definitely needed! But just what? For this you need to understand in detail how energy is distributed over the earth's surface, how we use it and how we accumulate it.

So now let's look at the energy of the sun a bit from the other side.

A tremendous amount of energy is falling to Earth. It is distributed as follows:

1. Reflection from the atmosphere and clouds
2. Heated Earth
2.1. Heating sushi
2.2. Water heating

3. The dispersion of energy in the upper atmosphere.

What can we use:

SOLAR ENERGY FIRST ORDER - direct conversion of light into electricity. The main and obvious disadvantage is the huge areas of solar panels. But let's get to the numbers:

● The average nuclear reactor produces about 1 GW of electricity. How many solar panels do you need to generate as much energy? We translate power into energy so that it is understandable. 1GW is 86400GJ of energy per day or 31536000GJ per year.

● We put panels in solar Chita (the sunniest city in Russia), the total insolation in Chita for the year is -4363 MJ. It turns out that you need to install (with an efficiency of 20%) 36 square kilometers of panels.

● In order for Russia to abandon nuclear energy, it will take about 1,152 km sq. Solar panels or about 11 trillion rubles (only on the panel). Agree a bit too much. There is one more thing - and what will happen to these 1152 km sq. Of area? What is the ecological footprint of a similar number of panels? And do not forget that in 15 years they will lose 30% of their power.

SECOND ORDER SOLAR ENERGY - it is used everywhere - it is a hydroelectric station. Those. the sun evaporates the water - then the river - then the hydroelectric station. Everything is clear here: in order to concentrate energy to an effective maximum, high dams are built that violate the water balance, flood areas, and disturb ecosystems.

THIRD-ORDER SOLAR ENERGY - the sun heats the surface of the planet - the surface transfers heat to the air - the air to wind power plants (WES). It is not difficult to guess that such a number of intermediaries smears the energy of the sun even more. And not in many places of the Earth it is concentrated enough to be caught. And the consequences of the use of wind turbines are the same - a violation of ecosystems, infrasound, etc.

Those. it turns out that energy in nature is very dissipated. It seems to be a lot of it (like aluminum), but it is not easy to get it. And as soon as a person tries to concentrate energy - he breaks the natural state of nature, which leads to eco-disasters.

Thus, even the use of alternative energy sources will lead to disruption of local ecosystems and, as a result, disruption of global ecosystems. Even alternative energy is unnatural to nature, since it does the same as other forms of energy, creates a local concentration, and therefore an increased load on the ecosystem. So what to do? Go back to the stone age?

Let's try to figure out why we need energy.

The needs of all people are different. Some are content with little, others crave luxury. But man, as a species, is generally subject to all the laws of ecology. The only difference is that our survival plank has a huge variation. This variation is due to the fact that we are able to extract and exploit energy. How does energy define our life?

Let's assume that the level of our energy needs is easily measured. And as a guideline, we take the Russian consumer basket and translate everything that it includes (heat, electricity, power, transport) into energy. Let's call this N. So, if we suddenly start to eat only plant food that we grew up, do not go anywhere, do not use modern technologies and live in the life of a Russian village of the XVI century, we will spend about 0.05N. And if we decide to eat lobsters, fly a plane, live in a posh house, it will cost us 10-100N.

Everything new that surrounds us, all entertainment and 8 hour working day - all this became possible only because of the abundance of energy. In nature, there is a universal law: "if energy is supplied to a closed system, the structure of the system becomes more complex, and the degree of chaos (entropy) falls." All human civilization is proof of this.

True, we have somewhat perverted the law by creating the equivalent of energy - money. And who would not say about the lack of confirmation of banknotes, in fact, they are confirmed by energy. That is, the cornerstone of the standard of living (security) of humanity is the extraction and distribution of energy. Regulation of energy flows is carried out at the expense of the market - the equivalent of the civilian energy system.

That is why individual sources of energy are extremely disadvantageous from a political point of view. But the need for them exists. So how to get energy for yourself?

So, based on the laws of ecology and the distribution of energy in ecosystems, we can draw the following conclusions:

1. Diversity of species and development of an ecosystem directly depends on energy supply, but according to the law of minimum, it may not be a limiting factor in the development of ecosystems. Those. an ecosystem is able to take as much energy as other conditions allow it to do. A good example is a field - for a field, the presence of trace elements in the soil is a limitation, therefore fertilizers or the correct species composition significantly increase biomass.

2. A person can extract some of the energy from an ecosystem without harming it.

3. The most harmful for the ecosystem is the reduction of species composition, as this leads to loss of stability.

Thus, the task of man is one - do no harm. Those. you can use only what does not violate the energy, information and material balance of ecosystems. These are very general conclusions. Now back to energy.

Russians consume about 5,000 kg of oil equivalent energy. If we recount the biomass (the average value of 10 MJ vs. 41 MJ of oil) we get 20,500 kg. Is it a lot or a little? According to statistics, about 5000-7000 kg / ha of biomass is harvested in the middle lane (if grown specifically, for example, shrubs). Thus, a person will need 3-4 hectares of space. Or (taking into account that we are 143 million), we will need 572 million hectares, or 5720000 Km.kv. Or 33% percent of the territory. It is absolutely clear that this is not an option. However, if you think a little, it’s not so sad:

1. Energy losses make up 11.5%
2. 19% of Energy gives hydro
3. 15% of Energy give to nuclear power plants.
4. 20% of energy is spent inefficiently (for heating buildings with poor thermal protection, lighting, etc.)

Those. this is already 15% of the area. But, nevertheless, we will not go to extremes and leave only what a person spends (transportation, food, housing) - and this is only 20-25% of the total energy consumption. Those. 10% of the territory is enough for us to store the sun’s energy in a green mass. At the same time, it is absolutely clear that it is foolish to build a CHP operating on wood. And what if you make a mini installation that runs on wood and gives heat and light?

Why all this? To live in harmony with the planet we need:

1. Use only the energy that is stored each year in biomass, and not to spend the one that has been stored for millions of years (oil, gas, coal).

2. Use only the biomass that can be implemented in the framework of increasing the productivity of ecosystems (drip irrigation in the desert, the use of ash fertilizers - maintaining the balance of microelements, etc.).

3. Promote the development of ecosystems to increase their productivity.

4. Use alternative energy sources where it is most efficient, but does not harm ecosystems.

5. Wait, when will solve the issue with thermonuclear fusion.

And if at all practically: the average productivity of wheat in above-ground biomass: 13000 kg, Ie we have enough two hectares to provide ourselves with heat and electricity, just have to work a little to collect this good, and then remember to return the ash to nature.
Of course, this is not a solution to the problems of the entire energy sector as a whole, but the right attitude to biological matter, as a universal accumulator and energy source, allows a person not only to spend what has been stored for years, but also to nurture and strengthen what is being given now.


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