How it works?
The aircraft, equipped with an onboard defendant AZN-V
, independently determining its coordinates by satellite (GPS, GLONASS, the technology is called satellite dependent for this reason), transmits its position data to the AZN-B ground stations
during the entire flight. Regardless of the receipt of a request from a ground interrogator, an extended squitter (extended squitter) is transmitted approximately every second by plane, this squitter contains the coordinates of the location of the aircraft. Among the data, in addition to coordinates, the course, barometric altitude, aircraft status (presence / absence of accidents, the need for medical care, aircraft hijacking, radio communication failure), etc. are broadcast.Data lines
In the world there are three modes of data transmission AZN-B, it is 1090ES, VDL4 and UAT. UAT is a format used only in the United States, combined with the 1090ES for general aviation. VDL4 - mode, invented in the 80s of the 20th century in Sweden. This format did not prove its effectiveness directly in civil aviation, having a low data transfer rate - 50 times less than that of the 1090ES, and therefore excluded from the development programs of civil aviation throughout the world.
In particular, one of the key arguments is the ability to meet the requirements for specified characteristics and the presence of on-board equipment of the specified standard. To date, more than 80% of foreign-made aircraft flying in the Russian Federation have on-board responders AZN-B 1090 ES. Domestic industrial enterprises make serial equipping of aircraft SSJ-100 with onboard equipment AZN-V 1090 ES, it is planned to equip the aircraft MS-21, Il-76TD-90VD, Tu-214, Il-114-300, Il-112, as well as refinement the existing fleet of IL-96-300, IL-96-400 and IL-96-400M up to the functional AZN-B 1090 ES.
The introduction of a single mode of data transmission AZN-B 1090ES allows you to standardize and optimize the monitoring of civil aviation flights in all classes of airspace. This will ensure the integrity and seamlessness of the created field of observation, provide an opportunity for flexible integration and awareness of all stakeholders, increasing the level of security.
The automated dependent surveillance and multilateration
systems deployed on the basis of the 1090ES are a single unified platform that accumulates data from geographically distributed data sources - AZN-B stations. In the future, this platform will be used for information and navigation services, voice communications at low altitudes, the transfer of digital data "airborne" and integration with meteorological systems.
The first object of such a system of geographically distributed data sources is a project to integrate two multi-position surveillance systems based on the single standard 1090ES in the North-West Federal District. The integrated MSSS system
with the AZN-B functionality was designed at Pulkovo airfield to provide a seamless field of observation in the approach zone, on the landing line and on the surface of the Pulkovo airfield, as well as monitoring aircraft height keeping ( HMU
+ AHMS) under reduced separation levels ( RVSM
). Integration solves the problems of not only obtaining accurate and reliable data in real time, but also many questions about the observation of air traffic over the city of St. Petersburg, the Leningrad Region.