The Russian scientist Vladimir Akimovich Atsyukovsky made a discovery in the field of physics (more correctly, natural science), the scale of which is difficult to overestimate. It will affect all areas of human life. This article is based on some books by V.A. Atsyukovsky [1, 2, 3] and is an attempt to present the essence of the discovery most concisely and convincingly to a non-expert.
Why the sun at sunset and at sunrise is red
First, try to answer the question on the physics of the high school level - why does the Sun have a red color at sunrise and sunset (and you can even look at it without fear for vision)? The answer will be given by any person who has graduated from the Soviet school. The fact is that at sunrise and at sunset the light coming from the Sun goes a longer way through the atmosphere than during the day when the Sun is at its zenith. When the light goes through any medium, its energy falls. The thickness of the atmosphere at sunrise and at sunset is such that the high-frequency violet part of the solar light spectrum has time to be absorbed by the atmosphere, and the low-frequency red part reaches the observer. Then the sun looks red and at the same time shines, but does not warm. Light energy is absorbed by a thick layer of the atmosphere on the way to the observer. When the sun is at its zenith, the layer of the atmosphere through which the light passes turns out to be thinner, and the sun seems yellow to us. In space, the Sun generally looks white and you cannot look at it without a blackout filter - the light energy is too high. Why did you need this task in physics? Now find out.
Does the universe expand
Have you ever heard that the universe is expanding? Probably yes. Do you know on what basis such a strange conclusion was made? Based on the so-called "red shift" of the spectrum of stars. At the end of the 19th century, it was found that the wavelengths of the stellar light were slightly shifted to the red region compared to the terrestrial spectra of the same processes. At the beginning of the 20th century, Edwin Hubble (after whom the space telescope was called in our time) discovered the relationship between the redshift and the distance to stars. Attention, the question is - how was this explained? The answer would be logical - the red shift arises due to the presence in the interstellar space of the medium absorbing the energy of light. And what is the explanation given by scientists? Since the special theory of relativity has already managed to forbid scientists to even think about the presence of any kind of medium (ether), they said that the red shift is the Doppler effect that occurs when the source of the wave is removed from the observer. There is such an effect, open Doppler. If the source of the wave moves away from the observer, the length of the wave coming to it increases. Accordingly, the frequency of oscillations detected by the observer decreases. For example, the sound of a receding car for a person on the road becomes lower and lower as the car is removed. If you shift to light waves, it turns out that when you remove the light source, the length of the light waves increases and the spectrum shifts to the red region. In general, they explained the redshift of the spectrum of stars by the Doppler effect - they said that the universe is expanding. But passed by the grand opening.
You have probably made a face up - does anyone have the right to refute what has already been proven? Are you sure what is proven? What is proven? Experiments? Let's see if we can experimentally prove a theory.
Is it possible to experimentally prove the theory
What is practice and theory in any science? Practice is experiments and their results. Theory is formulas and equations that allow you to predict results without experiments. What is an experiment? This is a set of input and output parameters with their values. Answer the question - how many first-order curves (straight lines) can be drawn through one point in space. The correct answer is an infinite number of lines. Answer the question - how many second-order curves (parabolas) can be drawn through two points of space? The correct answer is an infinite number of curves. Answer the question - how many N-th order curves can be drawn through N points of space? The answer is an infinite number of Nth order curves. Each such curve is described by the formula. It turns out that for a finite number of experiments, one can choose infinitely many formulas consistent with them. The number of experiments made by man will always remain finite. And this means that it will always be possible to offer infinitely many formulas and theories that are consistent with these experiments. An important conclusion follows from this: an experiment cannot prove a theory, but can only refute it. Therefore, the theory is always a hypothesis that either agrees with the experiment, or does not agree (then it is considered to be refuted, of course, if the experiment was carried out correctly). So, all theoretical physics is a set of hypotheses. And so the hypothesis V.A. Atsyukovsky has the same right to exist as the hypotheses of other physicists.
What philosophy will help us
Now we already have something for a scientific discovery, but it lacks a very important tool that would provide us with a search in the right direction. This tool is a philosophy. What is the task of philosophy? Give direction to thoughts and predict results where science is still powerless. What philosophy will we choose? This is the moment of truth for the scientist. A scientist must choose materialistic philosophy, otherwise his work can not be called a science. Materialistic philosophy asserts that in nature there is nothing but matter moving in space and time. Do you think this is a simplistic understanding of nature and being? Do not hurry. The concepts of space, time, matter and motion form four invariants of any natural science experiment. An invariant is a quantity that is considered constant and through which other quantities are expressed. The experiment is reliable only in the sense that it can be reproduced in the required conditions and express the values of the parameters of the experiment in terms of some constant values — invariants that do not depend on anything. In order not to argue about the results of experiments, we must agree that 1) the space is invariant - infinitely large, infinitely divisible, at any point in space the mathematically specified segment remains constant; 2) time is invariant - lasts infinitely, infinitely divisible, at any time the mathematically specified time interval remains constant; 3) matter is invariant - the amount of matter is infinite, but matter does not disappear anywhere and does not appear anywhere, matter is infinitely divisible, 4) matter exists in space and time in the form of motion.
Time to make a discovery
Now it's time to make a discovery. What do you think, what is the natural movement of matter in space and time? Whirling! Rene Descartes guessed this in the 17th century! And today, this discovery again gives reason to look into the microworld and answer the question of what is the structure of elementary particles. Arguing about the motion of matter from the standpoint of materialistic philosophy, Vladimir Akimovich Atsyukovsky came to the conclusion that the elementary particle of matter - the proton - is a toroidal vortex of particles of a smaller order compressed to the limit. Particles from which the proton is curled are called amers (from ancient Greek - “without measure”). Amer is a very small particle. According to approximate calculations, it is as much smaller than a proton as the proton itself is smaller than our galaxy. What is the structure of amer? This is also some kind of vortex structure of smaller particles, the name of which has not yet been invented. Those particles, in turn, must also be vortex structures. And so on to infinity. Such an idea of the structure of matter naturally leads to the conclusion that in space there is no physical point without matter. Whatever small point we choose, matter will always be detected in it, and the structure of matter in the space of this point will be a vortex. For the designation of the matter of which atoms are composed, the notion of ether was used in the field of natural science earlier (for example, the ether particle — newtonium — Mendeleev indicated the first element of his periodic table of chemical elements). However, it was not clear what is ether and what properties it has. Vladimir Akimovich Atsyukovsky suggested that the ether is a compressible gas, and the elementary particles are stable vortices of this gas. The physics section that studies gas behavior is called gas dynamics. The section of physics studying the behavior of ether as a compressible gas was named by VAAtsyukovskii etherdynamics. Ether dynamics gives a clear and understandable explanation of all interactions known in physics: electromagnetic, gravitational, strong and weak. Do not believe it? Then attention - the question on the backfill!
Where in nature is dualism
Have you ever wondered why there is dualism in nature - a particle and an antiparticle, a positive electric charge and a negative electric charge, the north magnetic pole and the south magnetic pole? Why are there only two opposing particles, electric charges and magnetic poles, not three, four, seven or ten? This is explained by the fact that in space there are only two screw movements (gimlet) - a screw movement to the left and a screw movement to the right (Fig. 1). At whatever angle in space you look at the screw movement, the left screw will always remain left, and the right screw will always remain right. In space, there are no more other screw movements.Fig. 1. Left screw screwed into torus (a) and right screw screwed into torus (b).
What is a proton
In a proton, the screw motion of particles is closed in a torus, i.e. the proton is a toroidal vortex (Fig. 2). There are two opposing toroidal vortices with respect to the screw motion: a toroidal vortex with a left-handed motion of particles and a toroidal vortex with a right-handed motion of particles. One of them will be a proton, the second - an antiproton. When a collision of two oppositely directed eddies, they annihilate (are destroyed) with the release of energy.Fig. 2. Proton in the transverse (a) and longitudinal (b) sections. The seals of the toroidal vortex are shown in gray. The arrows show the velocity distribution of the toroidal (a) and ring (b) movements of the walls of the toroidal vortex.
The particles moving in a toroidal vortex carry the neighboring particles with them. Those in turn entrain neighboring particles and so on. The movement of entrained particles through the center of the torus perpendicular to the torus ring is nothing else than a magnetic field. The motion of entrained particles in a torus circle is an electric field. As you yourself now understand, there exists a single electromagnetic field around the proton, and not two fields of a different nature. And in general, all interactions known to physicists — electromagnetic, gravitational, strong, and weak — are interactions of toroidal vortexes of protons.
What is a magnet and a magnetic field
Imagine that two toroidal vortices (toroid) are on the same axis of circular rotation (like two wheels on the same axis of a car). If the direction of rotation of the particles in both toroids coincides, then between the toroids, the ether particles carried along the axis will move in the same direction. This will reduce the pressure of the ether between the toroids. Recall that gas pressure is the kinetic energy of the chaotic movement of particles. Kinetic energy has not gone away, and there is no longer any randomness in the movement. Particles move together in one direction and cannot press on all their surrounding space (they only press in a strictly specified direction). The pressure between the toroids is reduced and the external pressure of the ether presses them together along the axis of rotation. If the direction of movement of the particles in both toroids is opposite, the particles carried by the vortices in the zone between the toroids move towards each other, collide and form an elevated pressure region that pushes the toroids apart. Imagine that a lot of toroids with the same direction of rotation are located on the same axis (a set of wheels tightly worn on one axis). Formed tube of toroids. It sucks particles on one side and throws them out on the other. This creates a magnetic field. Imagine a set of such tubes stacked together (the direction of rotation of the particles in all the tubes is the same). This will be the magnetic domain known from school physics. The material in which such domains have a predominant spatial orientation will work as a permanent magnet. A reservation should be made: the movement of ether particles in the magnetic domain is somewhat more complicated than described, for example, ether particles will not only be thrown out of the tubes, but also spiral along in the opposite direction relative to the flow passing through the center of the tube, compensating for the flow of particles in space.
What is electric charge and electric field
Now imagine that two toroids are located in one plane of circular rotation (like two wheels lying on a table). The direction of rotation of the particles in both toroids can be the same (the wheels rotate in one direction) or the opposite (the wheels rotate in different directions). If the direction of rotation of the particles in both toroids is the same and at the same time the toroids are located at a distance from each other, the particles carried by the toroids collide, scatter, and a weak excessive pressure is formed, pushing the toroids apart. But if the toroids are brought together, the effect will be the opposite. The fact is that at the boundary of each toroid, due to the difference (gradient) of the velocities of moving particles, a layer of reduced pressure is created. To imagine this, remember that, next to a passing train, a person is sucked under a train (and therefore, at subway stations, people are asked to move away from the edge of the platform). If the toroids are brought together, the fact of reduced pressure at the boundary will prevail, and the external pressure of the ether will press the toroids against each other. And what happens when the direction of rotation of the particles in both toroids is opposite (the wheels rotate in different directions)? In the region between toroids, the particles that they drag move in the same direction, the pressure between toroids is reduced, and the external pressure of the ether presses the toroids towards each other in the plane of their circular rotation. In the area of close proximity between toroids, the stream of ether captured by the rotation forms a “lubricant” that prevents toroids from touching. Well, we are close to finding out what an electric charge and electric field are.
Imagine wheels scattered on the table, rotating in one direction and located at some distance from each other. These are our toroids located in one plane. Suppose the direction of the screw movement of particles in each toroid is such that particles pass from the bottom upwards through the center of the torus. Since toroids rotate in the same direction and are spaced apart from each other, they repel each other. This phenomenon is perceived as an electric charge. Each lying toroid creates a twist of ether particles in a tube. In the tube, movement in a circle, rather than through the center, prevails, because the source of the tube is just one toroid. As the distance from the toroid increases, the centrifugal force increases the diameter of the tube, and the tube turns conical. If the charge is positive, the particles in the conical tubes move away from the toroid. If the charge is negative, the particles in the conical tubes move to the toroid. It is known that the charge is best accumulated on a spherical metal surface. Toroids on the surface of the ball rotate in the same direction, the cone tubes created by them repel each other and are distributed over the surface of the ball evenly. Vortexes caused by toroids in the form of outgoing or incoming conical tubes represent an electric field. A reservation should be made: the movement of ether particles will be somewhat more complicated than that described, for example, around conical tubes, particles will spiral along in the opposite direction, compensating for the spatial flow of particles.
What is a neutron and an electron
Well, well - you say, but besides protons, there are also neutrons and electrons. What is a neutron? As we already said, if two protons in the nucleus of an atom are located in one plane of circular rotation (like two wheels on a table) and at the same time have the opposite direction of circular rotation, they attract. In the immediate vicinity between the protons, a repulsive force arises, due to the flow of ether passing between them. However, if the rate of convergence of protons is high enough, they can overcome the repulsion and touch. The speed of circular motion of particles in protons may differ slightly. A proton whose particle has a lower speed of circular motion will slow down a proton whose particle has a higher speed of circular motion. In the braked proton, a differential velocity of the circular motion of particles occurs in the region of inhibition. With a noticeable drop in velocities in the braked proton, a boundary layer is formed, inside which the ring motion of the particles closes and does not affect the particles of the ether outside the surface layer. So a neutron is formed. Due to the presence of the boundary layer, the neutron is perceived as an electrically neutral particle. If a neutron flies out of the nucleus of an atom, it lives within 16 minutes - its boundary layer is either included in the toroidal motion of proton particles, or flies off the neutron in the form of a free electron.
At first, a free electron is a torus in the form of a thin ring of large diameter. Each element of the surface of this ring is affected by: from the outer side of the annular tube - the external pressure of free ether, from the inner side of the annular tube - by the internal pressure of the ether moving with a screw. The external pressure is substantially higher than the internal one, because the ring is the former surface layer of a neutron, rejected from the high-pressure region of the proton into the free ether. Under the action of the difference of forces, the ring begins to shrink with increasing linear and angular velocities. This continues until the toroidal vortex density increases to approximately the same values as that of the proton. But compared with a proton, a free electron has substantially smaller sizes.
By the way, since we have dealt with a proton, a neutron and an electron, let's honestly say which particles are observed by scientists at the Large Hadron Collider. They watch fragments of whirlwinds! Is there any benefit from this activity - to judge you. But note that at very high particle collision energies it is possible to randomly twist a black hole - an ethereal vortex of the proton type of a giant size.
What is gravity and is there a worldwide aggression
Finally, let's deal with what gravity is. To begin with, the question - do you understand that the air temperature in the room and the air temperature in the room are two completely different temperatures? Recall that temperature is the kinetic energy of the chaotic movement of particles perceived by the sensor. Air temperature is the kinetic energy of the chaotic movement of molecules. The temperature of the ether is the kinetic energy of the chaotic movement of amers - particles of a completely different order with respect to air molecules. The air temperature should be measured by a sensor of a completely different size (such a sensor has not yet been created). What is the vortex temperature compared to the ambient gas temperature? In a vortex, particles move not chaotically, but in an orderly manner. Their kinetic energy supports the vortex, and not the chaotic motion of neighboring particles. Therefore, the vortex is always colder than the surrounding gas. It is known, for example, that hail often flies out of a tornado parallel to the ground, so cold it is. So it is with the vortexes of the ether - protons. They are very cold in terms of the temperature of the ether. Bodies consisting of protons are also very cold in terms of the temperature of the ether. If two cold bodies are placed in a gas medium, they will begin to cool the gas around them. At the point between these cold bodies, the gas temperature will be lower than on the sides of both bodies. At the same time, the chaotic movement of gas particles creates not only temperature, but also pressure. It is known from gas dynamics that the lower the gas temperature, the lower the gas pressure, and vice versa. At the point between cold objects, the gas temperature drops and the gas pressure becomes lower. Then the external pressure of the gas pushes these objects to each other. This is gravity! To check whether you understand the mechanism of gravity, answer the question - is the Earth with the planets from the constellation Alpha Centauri? The distance from us to them and the number of celestial bodies around are so great that there will be no significant cooling and reduction in the pressure of the ether between Earth and the planet in Alpha Centauri. Consequently, there is no agony between distant planets and stars! Here you have the solution to the problem of the “gravitational paradox” (which is simplifiedly formulated as follows: in an infinite universe, the gravitational potential everywhere takes on an infinite value). There is no “gravitational paradox” because of the fact that it is not universal.
So, armed with materialistic philosophy and ethereal dynamics, we uncovered the mechanics of some of the most fundamental and mysterious physical phenomena: magnetism, electricity, gravity. In the books of VA Atsyukovsky, you will find an explanation for other fundamental physical phenomena, understand what light is, how it arises and how its speed is limited, learn how a transformer works, how galaxies work and much more. Ethirodynamics gives a person a modern scientific outlook and confidence that the problem of providing humanity with energy will be successfully solved in the future. After all, the amount of moving ether in the infinite universe is infinite!
1. Atsyukovsky V.A. General ether dynamics. Modeling the structures of matter and fields based on the concepts of a gas-like ether. M .: Energoatomizdat, 2008.
2. Atsyukovsky V.A. Popular ether-dynamics or how the world in which we live is arranged. M .: Scientific World, 2015.
3. Atsyukovsky V.A. Ethereal dynamic picture of the world. A series of lectures 2000-2001. M .: Petit 2010.
- electronic resource.