Recently, in the comments we were asked to write an article about words in Russian, which are similar to English. Such associations help to learn new words faster, but it is important not to fall for all the well-known “false friends of the translator”. Today we will talk about the first and second.
Many words in Russian are consonant in sounding English with a similar meaning, which really simplifies the process of memorizing them in many ways: for example, the child - child, dozing - dream
, etc. Thanks to such an associative chain, English vocabulary is learned by Russian speakers much easier.
For example, the now very popular subject of female wardrobe "body" takes its name from the English "body"
, which translates as "body" and also allows you to build a logical chain, simplifying memorization: underwear, body-fitting - the body is translated as "body" - " body
. As a result, both the name of the wardrobe item and the “main” translation of the English word are remembered. In the continuation of the "clothing" topics: shorts will help to remember the English "short"
, which translates as "short"
, and "shorts"
in the plural means just "shorts"
. Your favorite sweater will also be very useful in learning English and will contribute: in pronunciation, it resembles the verb “to sweat” (“sweat”)
, from which his English analogue “sweater”
Various words that we, without thinking about it, daily use, can also help us to remember one or another vocabulary from English. So, the word “clown”
will remind us of the English word “clown”
by its pronunciation and meaning, and the “puzzle”
will help us remember the verb “to puzzle” (which means not only a puzzle, but also “puzzling”)
: when we assemble a puzzle , we need to put together pieces of the problem, we honestly break our heads over it and are in a state of confusion.
A lot of borrowing has come from English to Russian, which have taken root and firmly rooted in our language. If you understand the nature of a borrowing - the meaning of the original, “original” English word - you can easily remember many popular words from completely different spheres. For example, briefing - “brief”
means “short, short”
, i.e. "Briefing" is
translated as "short meeting / conference"
. The profession of "image maker"
comes from the English word "imagemaker"
, which, in turn, is split into two more components: "image"
("image") and "make"
("do"), which together add up to "create an image"
. The well-known word “mainstream”
is also a borrowing from English, consisting of “main” (“main”)
and “stream” (“stream, direction”)
. You may not need these words themselves, or, on the contrary, you have been using them for a long time in their original form, but analyzing them into components will help you remember the meaning of other words and thereby expand your vocabulary.
Anyway, it is important to distinguish words that sound and have similar meanings, as well as borrowing from false translator friends who can play a cruel joke with foreign language learners.
For the first time the term “false friends of a translator” (fr. Faux amis
) appeared in 1928 in the book of M. Kessler and J. Derokkini and means by itself words in two languages, which, despite the fact that they are similar in writing and / or pronunciation, differ in meaning. Due to the apparent resemblance, they can confuse the person learning the language, which is why they got such a talking name. False friends of a translator can lead to the fact that the meaning of the whole sentence, and often the whole text will be misunderstood. Such words exist not only in English - the student of almost any foreign language at least once faced with a similar phenomenon. So examples of “false friends” can be cited from completely different languages: here the Polish “miasto”
, which actually means “city”
, and not the “place” at all, and the Czech “czas”
, translated as “time”
, but not an hour.
If we talk about the false friends of the translator in the English language, then we all are familiar with the word “magazine”
. Many people, especially at the beginning of their acquaintance with English, persistently translate this word as “shop”, although in reality the correct translation is “magazine”
. The same situation with “artist”
- in fact, every second person is mistaken with the meaning of this word, considering that it translates as “artist” because of the similarity of sound, although in reality it is “artist”
. The electrician was also unlucky - despite the fact that in English his profession correctly sounds like an “electrician”
, he is often confused with “electric”, which in fact means “electric”
"Girls' best friends are diamonds," says a popular expression used extensively from fiction to songs, but few people think that the English word "brilliant"
means first of all the adjective "brilliant, ingenious,"
and in most cases it will sound same as "diamond"
And let the word “crest”
not put an end to your attempts to translate it correctly: in fact, the correct translation sounds like “comb”
, and not “cross”
, which will be “cross”
. The same story with the "general"
- "common, basic
. " “Master”
has long expanded its range of values to “master”
, and in most cases it will be translated that way, and not just as “master”.
The poor Danes also get it - they are often called “the Dutch”
because of the similarity of sound, while “the Dutch” is translated as “Dutch”
, and “Danes”
will sound like “the Danes”
The method of searching for similar words in the native and studied languages can really significantly simplify the process of memorizing, as well as building associative chains. Borrowing also helps greatly, because if you trace the etymology and the literal translation of the “original” word, the meaning immediately becomes clearer and more logical.
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