Today in release: the mad pismashinka in the People's Commissariat of Education; 85 year old sniper; to the question of the influence of solar activity on the revolution, “Pope, open the archives!” and much more.
Vartan Tigranovich was a minor demon. No, truth-truth - this phrase glorified by Fyodor Sologub described him ideally. But that was not the problem.
The problem was that he was a petty devil. Moreover, the curse hung on him is very rare - Vartan Tigranovich was cursed by luck. He was always lucky, and that was the main cause of all his problems. Therefore, it is best to start this essay like this:
Vartan Tigranovich Ter-Oganezov was a petty demon. Very lucky and therefore deeply unlucky petty demon.All my non-positive heroes have some mystical problems with photos. This is his only image that I found. Figure L.N. Radlova.
He was born on October 10, 1890 in the city of Tiflis in the family of the collegiate registrar Tigran Vartanovich Ter-Oganezov. The collegiate registrar (also known as the “elistratie simple”) is - I will remind you - the fourteenth, the lowest rank of the famous “Table of Ranks”. He did not even give the rights to the personal nobility, only for honorary citizenship. The very rank of which Alexander “our everything” Alexander Pushkin very honestly wrote in the “Stationmaster”: “I am a martyr of the fourteenth class who was protected from his beatings by his rank, and that is not always the case.” The last remark is very significant, especially if we recall that one of the characters in the story “Laughter and Sorrow” by Nicholas “Lefty” Leskov calls collegiate registrars just as “Don't beat me into the snout.” In general, his dad was not the highest ranks.
Our hero's mother died early, leaving Vartan and his older sister Astghik orphans. But the boy also did not go to school, like his father - the collegiate registrar got married again, and soon our hero had two half-sisters, Elizabeth and Margaret or Zizi and Margo, as they all their life signed in letters.
In these times, of course, Vartan Tigranovich was not yet a minor demon. He was ordinary, rather, even a good boy. The boy, who is in peak with the surrounding small world, dreamed of a big one. But not about the big rank, but about the big one - in the global sense. I would even say eschatological. He often looked at the sky. And the sky in the south is a very special sky. There is neither a dumb father service, nor a stepmother, nor four children in the family who live on the collegiate registrar’s penny salary ...
There are stars.No rain, no snow,
Neither cloudy wind
At midnight cloudless hour
Throws open the sky
For vigilant and joyful eyes,
Treasures of the universe
Flicker, as if breathing,
The zenith is slowly ringing
And there are such people -
They hear perfectly
As a star with a star says:
- I shine.
-What time is it now?
- Twelfth approximately ...
There on Earth at this hour
Best seen by us
-What about the children?
-Children? Sleep, probably ...
People who listen to how a star with a star says really exist, and while still a high school student, Ter-Oganezov became interested in astronomy. And he got carried away seriously - from the age of ten he corresponded with the chairman of the Russian Astronomical Society, one of the most famous astronomers of the empire, Sergey Pavlovich von Glasenap. And he was not the only one - for example, in February 1901 a fourth-grade pupil of the Fifth Kiev Gymnasium, Andrei Borysyak, who also corresponded with Glazenap, informed him about his observations of the new star in the constellation Perseus, which had reached a maximum of zero. Everything was confirmed in March at a meeting of the RAO S. P. Glazenap reported on the discovery of A. Borisyak, which was made several hours earlier than others, including foreign astronomers. Soon the high school student was elected a full member of RAO, and he received a “highest” gift - a telescope.High school student A. Borisyak
Ter-Oganezov did not discover anything, but he was already very lucky - fate gave him a chance to realize the dream. After graduating from high school, he did not go to work to help his family, but entered the university. Of course, at the Physics and Mathematics Department of St. Petersburg University, where, after many years of correspondence, he finally met Sergei Pavlovich and began to seriously study astronomy (later, however, he moved from Glazenap to Alexander Alexandrovich Ivanov). He studied well, at the age of 18, became a member of the Russian Astronomical Society, and in 1913-14 he published two articles on two-star orbits in the Proceedings of the Russian Astronomical Society. They were called “A note on the determination of the orbits of double stars” and “On the determination of the coefficient δ included in the equation for the visible ellipse of a double star”. Unfortunately, these two articles remained his only scientific works.
Why all? But because human life is a permanent choice at the forks appearing before you, and some of the paths are painfully beckoning ... At one of these forks, a former good boy, now a promising young astronomer, chose a path that had very few chances to survive and good boy, and promising scientist.
Vartan graduated from the university at a very wrong time - in 1916, just a few months before the February Revolution. Crazy air of freedom doped then and much stronger people than my hero.
In general, it is surprising how much the algorithms of what is happening are the same at all times. I myself graduated from the university in the early 90s and remember very well those hollow corridors and half-empty audiences with teachers confused as kindergarteners abandoned by the teacher. And students who sell with burning eyes who jam, who preserves, who the air. And the recent honors pupils and Lenin scholars who left the university a year, or even a few months before graduation. Who needs these papers? There, outside the walls, the age-old foundations are crumbling, the state is falling, there now shine such perspectives, that the mind goes behind the mind and eyes mown to the bridge of the nose. What western and southern Slavs can now be, to whom your physical chemistry, high-molecular compounds and partial differential equations have surrendered?
It almost always ended the same way - in a couple of years potential dollar millionaires overslept appeared in the dean's office and, hiding their eyes, started talking about restoration and the ability to defend a diploma. However, a couple really lucky. Approximately as Vartan Ter-Oganezov.
This is how the great Russian astrophysicist Vsevolod Stratonov describes what is happening in his memoirs:“Ter-Oganezov graduated from the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics in Petrograd and passed the exams well. Ivanov left him at the university scholarship in the department of astronomy. But after that, he stopped practicing, declined to submit any report on his work as a fellow, and therefore was excluded from the list left at the university. In the fall of 1917, he came to confess to Ivanov, asking him to be restored to the position left at the university. Ivanov condescendingly went to meet him and promised, if Ter-Oganezov presented any work, to restore him to the position of a university scholar. He did not submit any work; but ... after that the Bolshevik coup took place, and Ter-Oganezov was at the head of all the scientists of the Russian institutions. ”
As we kindly tell the stickers in the messengers "This is a turn!". Yes, indeed, Vartan Tigranovich was indeed as if he had spontaneously originated in the depths of the People's Commissariat of Education. At least for all these years, no one could explain where he came from. He was not an old Bolshevik, just like a recent student of Fedorovsky - he joined the party of Ter-Oganezov only in 1918. He did not acquire high patrons, like Gorbunov, and did not even demonstrate a remarkable acumen or non-trivial organizational abilities. But, nevertheless, as early as November 1917, Ter-Oganezov entered the State Commission on Education, whose main goal was to form an education reform strategy and organize scientific research, where he headed the so-called Scientific Department of the People's Commissariat of Education, a division created to supervise the work of Russian scientific organizations.
There is only one option - it is not known what kind of fairy kissed his head in the cradle, but Ter-Oganezov was really impossible, incredibly lucky. It’s just not for nothing that lucky people in Russia always said: “This is the devil who enchants you”.
The chance to be at such an age at such a position falls out in life only once, and Vartan Tigranovich was smart enough to understand this. Therefore, stepping on the post impossible for yesterday's student, our hero showed some kind of utter activity. It would not be a big exaggeration to say that he really worked in the “mad typewriter” mode.
Exhaust, however, was small. So, out of all his legislative initiatives, only one lived to the end. The Decree on the Transition of the Hand of the Clock was issued on December 22, 1917, right between the decrees On the Delegation of the Delegation to Stockholm to Prepare for the Convocation of the Zimmerwald-Kienthal International Conference and the Decree on Universal Service for Clearing the Snow in Petrograd. It was signed by Lenin, Bonch-Bruyevich and Gorbunov, already familiar to us, but the show was prepared by someone "Acting Government Commissar for the Scientific Department of the People's Commissariat of Education, V. Ter-Oganezov." If we take into account that the decree on the cancellation of summer time introduced by the Provisional Government, we can say that the recent astronomer has worked in the specialty.
However, such a small performance did not embarrass Vartan Tigranovich at all; he was still gushing with ideas. And, I must give him his due - very radical. As a mathematician, he reasoned quite logically: who, for example, can know the shortcomings of the educational process at a university is better than the man who outlined lectures in an audience a few months ago? As a result, legislative initiatives of the Scientific Department for Higher Education Reform came to light:“Diplomas at the end of universities are canceled, they must be replaced by a special test commission, through which each student must pass; the teaching staff is replenished with a strict discussion of all candidates by specialists from all Russian universities; studying youth are granted the right to reclaim unwanted professors; the competition for admission to higher educational institutions must be completely abolished, because it allows the bourgeoisie to easily enter the university and makes it inaccessible to the proletariat; certificates of maturity are replaced by [...] one-year experience, which ascertains the performance of the listener.
But it’s not even the radical nature of the proposed reforms. The big problem was that Comrade Ter-Oganezov’s ideas knew no boundaries, and the idea in the proposed documents flew from one to the other with extraordinary ease. Sorry for the extensive quotation from his report, but otherwise just do not understand the whole grandeur of the plans of the young head of the department. I draw your attention that this is the original, and not cutting, the thoughts were so crowded that they ousted everything, including logical transitions:“The upheaval that changed the class relationship inspires confidence that the proletariat will push new forces. Turning to the creation of new scientific institutions and the reform of old ones, it is necessary to change the range of tasks of the physical observatory that does not meet its purpose. The centralization and convening of a congress of representatives of meteorological institutions, which the Executive Committee will allocate, is necessary. The Chamber of Weights and Measures also does not meet the needs of the time; on her responsibility lies the control of measuring instruments. It is necessary to further coordinate the activities of all museums whose work has no general plan. To develop this plan, it is necessary to convene a congress. The Academy of Sciences, still the center of purely scientific disciplines, is beginning to unite institutions with technical character around it. In this spirit, her work should be further developed. As for new beginnings, the Institute of Radiology, in addition to its purely scientific value, is important for medicine; An x-ray bureau will be created in Moscow. His plan has already been developed. It will study the rays and take care of the organization of cabinets for treating the wounded. The Institute for the Study of Electric Waves will also be of practical importance. The Commissariat of Posts and Telegraphs is interested in its creation. Institute for the Study of Best Air Traffic; the creation of the Commission for the study of the direction of the winds. In addition to a number of purely scientific tasks, the Institute of Physics and Technology will carry out work on changing physicotechnical devices, for example, a thermometer. All remaining enterprises of a physico-technical nature should be used. In addition to creating new institutions, it is planned to organize a number of popular scientific lectures. The tasks of the Scientific Department also include concerns about the formulation of scientific cinematography, the attraction of scientific and artistic forces to this work; concerns about publishing books of a scientific nature in three categories. ”
Even Deputy People's Commissar Lunacharsky, the famous historian Pokrovsky, who broke out with a philippic style “do you use cocaine there, or what?”, Goggled his eyes from such an intimate fiction. Mikhail Nikolayevich said that the program proposed by the Scientific Department “is very broad and covers the tasks of other departments: for example, the training of scientists is a function of the Department of Higher Education, the publishing house is a function of the Publishing Department, etc. It is more expedient for the Research Department to focus its attention on scientific institutions in its own sense words that do not pursue any learning goals
A member of the commission, the director of the Moscow Observatory, P. K. Sternberg, in plain language called the program of Ter-Oganezov "utopia"
and advised him to take up his direct duties: to reform, for example, the Academy of Sciences. In general, the work of Ter-Oganezov was considered unsatisfactory, and to help yesterday's student it was recommended “to attract more scientific value”.
Soon, the Scientific Department was headed by Professor D. N. Artemyev, the renowned “student of Academician Vernadsky”
Further, my regular readers already know. The new and old chief unexpectedly became friends, Artemyev even called Ter-Oganezov to teach at the Mining Academy to his place, albeit beyond the use of astronomy miners, he taught students of geometry. Then they both received the most powerful dressing from Vladimir Ilyich Lenin for excesses in reforming the Academy of Sciences, and their activities as leaders of Russian science came to an end. Artemyev was offended and fled abroad, while Ter-Oganezov stayed and tried for a long time to understand - why did he get kicked out, what did he do wrong?
The idea that he was elementaryly shallow for his position did not occur to him - when did people believe in such slander?
However, and kicked it is not up to the end. Officials in Russia, like those Indians - having given their ends, do not die for good. I don’t know how to try and what to do to get you thrown out completely in the cold. Usually, the punished colleague, at least a small position, but they will find it. Vartan Tigranovich, in particular, was transferred from Russian science to nature protection and environmental protection, and from August 1924 he was peacefully engaged in nature reserves. And there seems to have even brought some benefit to the country. And then they returned to science and higher education, however, not for the first, but for the third or fourth roles.
And Vartan Tigranovich was very sad from this. He suffered to a gnash of teeth, and still could not understand - where did he get pierced, why did the stars betray him, because of what he, in fact, repeated the path of his father, becoming a minor official? And from this insult, he wanted to howl at the moon.And on the moon, on the moon,
On a blue boulder,
Moon people are watching
The eye is not reduced
Like over the moon, over the moon,
The ball is blue, the globe,
It comes up very nicely
And it comes.
In general, Vartan Tigranovich was determined to take revenge and return to power. And not just anywhere, but in his native field - astronomy. A dream cannot be thrown, a dream must be realized. He changed the dream - and for this fate punished him. Well, then he just needs to return to that fork and become a famous and influential astronomer. Some problem was that he had long and hopelessly lost his scientific qualification, but he did not care much about it. He has a plan that is easy to implement. It didn’t work out for a long time, but in 1930, Ter-Oganezov had a chance, but I’m saying that he was extremely lucky.
You, most likely, know the name of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Morozov. Today he is remembered for the most part as a chronobore, raised on the shield of Fomenko and Nosovsky, but in reality this person was a little about that, and the person, of course, was unique. These people can be treated differently, but to deny their presence of an adamantium core is meaningless. Today, these just do not. During his long life, Morozov changed many things:
- illegitimate son of Mologsky landowner Peter Alekseevich Shchepochkin, bearing the surname of his mother, a peasant Anna Morozova, and patronymic name “on the cross,” which is the name
- schoolboy excluded for disgusting performance
- volunteer at Moscow University
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