Diabetes mellitus belongs to the category of complex diseases diagnosed more and more often. The main problem of this disease is significantly increased blood sugar. A healthy pancreas produces a special hormone - insulin, which is responsible for the processing of sugars from food. Glucose is a "fuel" for cells, providing them with energy necessary for normal life. In diabetes, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, and sugar remains in the blood.
Types of diabetes
Doctors distinguish two types of disease:
- type 1 diabetes, or insulin-dependent;
- type 2 diabetes, or non-insulin dependent.
The causes of the formation of diseases are different. So, type 1 diabetes occurs with a genetic predisposition. Sometimes it can be a consequence of a viral infection.
Factors that provoke the development of diabetes in the second type include:
- genetic predisposition;
- endocrinological diseases;
- pathology of the pituitary or adrenal cortex;
- tumors of the pancreas.
At the disposal of physicians are many drugs that can reduce blood sugar, but medical nutrition also plays an equally important role. This is the Table 9 diet for diabetes. A special role is given to it in the treatment of diseases of mild to moderate severity.
Therapeutic dietetics: the basics
The diet "Table 9" for diabetes requires the patient to comply with the following rules:
- Meals should be frequent and regular. During the day you need to eat at least 5 times and always at the same time.
- Servings should contain approximately the same amount of carbohydrates, as well as be the same in calories.
- Diet number 9 is quite diverse, because it allows you to consume many products, which contain a small amount of sugar.
- Regular sugar must be replaced with sorbitol, xylitol or other sweeteners.
Diet 9 for overweight diabetics should include the following foods in a daily diet:
- cabbage (fresh and pickled);
- green pea.
These products are able to enhance the feeling of fullness, since portions with fractional nutrition are quite small.
To improve liver function, the Table 9 diet for diabetes should include cottage cheese, oatmeal, and soy. At the same time, broths prepared from meat or fish, as well as fried foods, should be limited.
"Table 9" diet: menu
For people suffering from this disease, numerous nutrition options and recipes have been developed. Diet 9 can be used at home. To do this, you just need to know the list of allowed and prohibited products.
Diet number 9 may contain the following dishes and products:
- Wheat and rye bread, but the loaf should, however, be eliminated or limited to a minimum.
- Soups based on vegetable decoctions.
- Soups on meat or fish broth with the addition of vegetables can be present on the menu no more than twice a week.
- Poultry, beef, veal and lean pork, rabbit, cooked in a double boiler or boiled.
- Fish. All non-greasy varieties are allowed - saffron cod, pike perch, cod, common carp - in boiled form.
- Garnish allowed vegetables such as cabbage, lettuce, rutabaga, radishes, zucchini, cucumbers, potatoes, beets in baked or boiled form.
- Cereals, legumes, and pasta are allowed, but consumption needs to be limited.
- Eggs may also be present on the menu. A diet for diabetics allows you to eat a couple of eggs a day in the form of scrambled eggs, boiled soft-boiled or as part of any dish.
- Sweets, berries and fruits - only with the permission of the supervising doctor. But fruits with sourness, for example, orange, lemon, red currant can be consumed both fresh and as compotes.
- Milk and dairy products. Yogurt, kefir or plain milk - about 500 ml. Cottage cheese - both fresh and cottage cheese or casseroles.
- It is necessary to limit the consumption of cream, cheese and sour cream.
- Non-spicy sauces cooked on vegetable broths with the addition of mashed tomatoes or milk are allowed.
- Diet "Table 9" for diabetes allows the use of vinaigrettes and vegetable salads.
- From drinks - tea with the addition of milk, weak coffee, juices made from sour fruits.
- Butter and vegetable oil - not more than 40 grams per day.
Enrich the diet with the necessary vitamins will help yeast (beer or bakery), a decoction of rosehip berries.
Diet No. 9 requires the complete exclusion of the following products:
- Any sweets, including jam and honey, as well as pastries and buns.
- Pork and mutton fat.
- Spicy, smoked, salted and spicy dishes, as well as pepper and mustard.
- Raisins, grapes and bananas.
Approximate daily dietary intake
Throughout the day, 150 grams of wheat and 250 grams of rye bread are allowed to be consumed.
If diet 9 is prescribed, the daily menu may include the following meals:
- For breakfast - buckwheat porridge, meat pate, tea with milk and bread and butter.
- At lunchtime, you can eat cottage cheese, drink a glass of kefir. Bread, butter and tea are also allowed.
- Lunch (after work): soup with vegetables, boiled meat with potatoes, an apple.
- Dinner: carrot cutlets with cottage cheese or fish with boiled cabbage and tea.
- At night you need to drink a glass of kefir.
If you think about it, a diet excludes many foods that a person loves, but with the right approach, it can become surprisingly tasty and varied. We have selected several non-standard recipes that fully meet the requirements of nutritionists.
Easy to cook. You will need boiled filet of low-fat fish and carrots. Dice the vegetable and stew with the addition of oil. When the carrots become soft, combine it with the fish fillet and mix thoroughly. Before serving, lightly salt and add a little butter.
Unusual, tasty and satisfying. You need to boil some meat. From rice you need to cook viscous porridge. Then the meat and porridge passed through the meat grinder are thoroughly mixed until a homogeneous mass is obtained. Serve chilled.
Initially, cook lean meat broth. Then, the following vegetables are added to it: shredded white cabbage, fried carrots and turnips. When serving, sprinkle the soup with herbs and put fresh tomatoes in cubes or slices on a plate.
Pearl Barley Vegetable Soup
Another variation of diet soup. Barley is pre-soaked. As a basis for soup, you can use vegetable or chicken broth. About 10 minutes before the cereal is cooked, potatoes and fry (onions and carrots) are added to the soup. Sprinkle with herbs before serving.
Carrot and Apple Cloves
You will need carrots, apples, milk, an egg and semolina. First, pass the carrots through a meat grinder or grate. Cut the apples into small pieces. Then pour milk into carrots and add semolina to the mixture. Mix thoroughly and boil for about 10 minutes, stirring constantly. Add the apple and egg to the cooled mass. Salt to taste. Then form cutlets, roll them in flour. The meatballs are watered with sauce and briefly placed in the oven.
Sambuk from apples
You will need apples, a sugar substitute, and egg whites. Remove the middle from the apples and bake in the oven. Wipe the cooled fruit through a sieve. You should get mashed potatoes, in which you need to add a substitute for sugar and protein. The mass is whipped until the foam appears on the surface. After that, diluted gelatin is introduced into the apple-protein mixture, and it is poured into molds. A delicious and healthy dessert is ready.
As you can see, diet number 9 can not only be healthy, but also very tasty. You just need to make, based on the allowed list of products, your own daily menu and do not forget to visit your doctor. Be healthy!