We deal with Latin abbreviations and phrases in English

Eighteen months ago, while reading works about the vulnerabilities of Meltdown and Specter , I caught myself not understanding the difference between the abbreviations ie and eg i.e. the context seems to be understandable, but then it seems to be somehow and not quite right. As a result, I then made myself a small crib precisely for these abbreviations, so as not to get confused. And then the idea of ​​this article came up.

Time passed, I collected a collection of Latin words and abbreviations met in English sources and today I am ready to share it with readers of Habra. It is worth noting that many of these phrases are actively used in academic literature in Russian, but in English they are frequent guests, even in mass sources. I hope that this collection is useful to people who are not engaged in scientific work in the Russian-speaking environment, but often encounter more or less serious texts in English, where Latin inclusions can be confusing.

Common Abbreviations and Expressions

etc. - et cetera , “etc.” It is read in Latin - [ˌɛt ˈsɛt (ə) ɹə], and, unlike most other abbreviations, it is often used in oral speech. You can memorize the pronunciation by the excellent Elenore of The Turtles - the only song with etc. in the text that hit the charts.

♫ Elenore, gee I think you're swell
♫ And you really do me well
♫ You're my pride and joy, etc.

et al. - et alii , “and others,” reads as spelled [ɛtˈɑːl] / [ˌet ˈæl]. Almost always refers to people (to reduce the list of authors in the body of the work), it rarely can imply other places in the text (lat. Et alibi ) when reviewing. In very rare cases, it is used in the meaning of "etc." (lat. Et alia ).

Note that these countermeasures only prevent Meltdown, and not the class of Specter attacks described by Kocher et al. [40].
Note that these countermeasures prevent only Meltdown and are ineffective against the Specter class attacks described by Kocher et al. [40].

ie - id est , "in the sense of", "that is." It is read either as an abbreviation of IE ([ˌaɪˈiː]), or simply as that is .

To prevent the transient instruction sequence from continuing with a wrong value, ie , '0', Meltdown retries reading the address until it encounters a value different from '0' (line 6).
To prevent continued execution of the transition sequence of instructions with the wrong value, i.e. with "0", Meltdown tries to read the address again until it finds a value other than "0" (line 6). (Here, “incorrect value” means only “0”, and the chapter itself is called The Case of 0 - “Case of Zero”) .

viz. - videre licet , "namely." In most cases, read as namely or to wit . It differs from ie in that ie is a refinement, and viz. - mandatory comprehensive reference to the object (s) after the announcement of his / their designation / list. Some sources consider the obsolete option ie ; indeed, in the works of the second half of the 20th century viz. found much more often than in modern ones.

Since this new class of attacks involves measuring precise time intervals, as a partial, short-term, mitigation we are disabling or reducing the precision of several time sources in Firefox. This includes both explicit sources, like performance.now (), and implicit sources that allow building high-resolution timers, viz. , SharedArrayBuffer.
Since this new class of attacks includes accurate measurement of time intervals, as a partial temporary solution, we disable or reduce the accuracy of some time sources in Firefox. Among them are both explicit sources like performance.now (), and indirect ones that allow you to create timers with high resolution, namely SharedArrayBuffer.

eg - exempli gratia , for example, in particular. It is read as for example , less often as an abbreviation EG. Unlike the previous two abbreviations, it is used precisely as an example, and not an enumeration of all values.

Meltdown does not exploit any software vulnerability, i.e. , it works on all major operating systems. Instead, Meltdown exploits side-channel information available on most modern processors, eg , modern Intel microarchitectures since 2010 and potentially on other CPUs of other vendors.
Meltdown does not use any software vulnerabilities, i.e. works on all major operating systems. Instead, it uses side-channel information available on most modern processors, in particular, Intel microarchitecture since 2010 and, possibly, CPUs from other manufacturers.

NB - nota bene , "pay attention." It is written in capital letters.

vs., v. - versus , “against”, [ˈvɝː.səs]. It is noteworthy that the borrowed word in Latin had a different meaning - “direction after a sharp turn”. The phrase “ versus Deus ” is used by medieval philosophers in constructions like “Petya robbed korovans all his life, and when he was caught and sentenced to the gallows, he turned sharply to God .”

c., cca., ca., circ. - circa , “about” relative to dates. Pronounced by [ˈsɝː.kə].

ad hoc - “special”, “situational”, “temporary”, literally translated “for this”. Denotes something that solves a specific, as narrow as possible and often emergency task. It can be used as crutch.

This observation led to a proliferation of new Specter and Meltdown attack variants and even more ad hoc defenses (eg, microcode and software patches).
This observation led to an increase in the number of new Specter and Meltdown attack options and an even greater number of situational defensive solutions (in particular, micro-command and patch systems).

If you don't have a capacitor to use as a bypass, you may omit it as an ad hoc solution.
If you don’t have a capacitor to decouple, you can do without it as a temporary crutch.

ad lib - short for ad libitum , "optional", "impromptu." Denotes spontaneity, improvisation, a sudden idea. It differs from ad hoc in greater freedom. Those. “We had a riser burst, the emergency gang promised to arrive in an hour, I had to fence a bucket structure” - ad hoc. “I forgot to buy sour cream for dumplings, so I tried mayonnaise” - ad lib.

I forgot my script, so I spoke ad lib
I forgot the text, so I improvised

[sic] - "so in the original." In academic texts, it means the original spelling (in dialect, obsolete, typographical error, etc.). With the heyday of social networks, it became widespread as a mockery of errors and typos in tweets and other posts ("look, what a fool!").

Newly-elected President Donald Trump risked further fueling relations between the US and China when on Saturday via China accused China of an “unresident [sic] act” of taking over an unmanned American submarine this week.

Abbreviations in bibliographic references and footnotes

ibid. , ib. - ibidem , ibid (about the source);
id - idem , the same (about the author). By strict ibid rules . literally means "in the same place" - in the same source on the same page - and does not imply additional refinement, but id. points to another place in the same source and is always supplemented by the page number (or passim ). In reality, many authors use only ibid. and calmly supply it with new pages.

op. cit. - opere citato , "quoted work." Replaces the title of an article or book when ibid. not suitable, because between the mentions of the same work wedged in others (for example, in footnotes); It is written after the name of the author:

cf. - confer - "cf.", "compare." In contrast, see points to a different point of view for greater objectivity (see the example above).

passim - "everywhere." It is used when it is not possible to specify a specific page in the source, because the desired idea / information permeates it through.

et seq. - et sequentes - “and further” about the pages in the source.

f. and ff. - folio - another option "and further", placed immediately after the page number without a space. One f. means one page, two ff. - an indefinite number of pages. ff. quite popular in the German language, because it is similar to fortfolgende - "subsequent".

Note: in modern English they do not recommend using et. seq. and ff., it’s better to directly indicate the range of pages.

Rarely used abbreviations

inf. and sup. - infra , supra - see below and see above, respectively.

loc. cit. - loco citato - an analog of ibid.

sc. - scilicet - “that is,” an analogue of viz.

qv - quod vide - “see”, “watch”. Always points to another place in the same work; in a classic form is self-sufficient, because assumes that the reader himself will find the desired chapter. In modern language, it is preferable to use see with an exact indication of what to watch.

sv - sub verbo - essentially such a <a href> up to hypertext, points to a specific dictionary entry, the exact name of which follows immediately after the abbreviation.

And a bit more

QED - quod erat demonstrandum - "as required to prove."

sl - sensu lato - "in the broad sense."

ss - sensu stricto - "in the strict sense."

verbatim - literally, literally.

Source: https://habr.com/ru/post/462175/

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